what was the frenchs interest building a canal in central america?
a french company began digging across the panama isthmus in 1880
The Project failed due to bankruptcy.
why was america interested in Hawaii?
To gain resources such as sugar cane.
what was the 1875 treaty with Hawaii?
the 1875 treaty gave hawaiian sugar entry into american markets and declared hawaii off limits to other powers.
what was the 1887 treaty with Hawaii?
the 1887 treaty gave the US naval rights to Pearl Harbor.
what caused the revolt in Hawaii?
the hawaiian revolt was caused by McKinley Tariff of 1890, which cancelled hawaiian sugar cane access to american markets.
As a result of this, sugar planters revolted against queen liliuokalani and instead, they negotiated a treaty of annexation with the harrison administration.
Lastly, Grover Cleveland's administration withdrew the treaty, claiming that it did not honors america by obtaining land off of the nations shores.
what were the ECONOMIC reasons for expansion?
-US needed a foreign market for over production.
-needed a new source for raw materials
US also needed to export more than import.
what did the panic of 1893 cause?
industrial strikes and agarian protests
also, made US realize how necessary it was for them to imperialize.
what were the military reasons for expansion?
-wanted to set up coaling stations and naval bases world wide.
-wanted to prevent european powers from putting their influence in western hemisphere
explain alfred mahan and the naval power?
mahan began the idea that a countrys power was based off of their control of the seas and how strong and powerful their navy was, and how well it could protect american commerce.
mahan also advocated for the pananma canal.
humanitatrian resons for expansion
- survival of the fittest (only strong nations would survive)
-US needed to be the most poweful and strongest country
-it was up to the US to spread their beliefs, ideas, powers, and greatness to the worl
what were some things that caused the spanish american war?
sympathy for rebels
control of sugar
what was george deweys role in the soanish american war?
george dewey was the commander of the pacific fleet and sailed to the philippines, cornered the soanish fleet in the Manila bay, and destroyed it.
what was the intital cause for US intervention in the revolts?
the cuban civil war disruoted trade: cleveland decided that it was up the to the spanish to end the rebellion, but if it got worse or disrupted more trade, the US would have to intervene.
explain the USS Maine explosion.
the maine was exploded in havana harbor and became a major facore i. americas want to go to war. many americans believed that the spanish blew up the ship.
what was included in the treaty of paris1898?
-US gets puerto rico, the philippines, and guam
-us occupies manila bay
-cuba gets $20 million
-cuba becomes mostly indepdent.
what were some reasons for expansion?
-USS Maine explosion
-bigger economy (more trading partners)
-european powers are prevented from settling in western hemisphere.
-more naval bases
-protect american property
what was the teller amendment?
The teller amendment proclaimed that the us would not establish permanent control over Cuba
what was the platt amendment?
The platt amendment allowed the us the right to intervene for the preservation of Cuban independence.
-also allowed the us to maintain a naval base in Cuba (Guantanamo bay)
what were the bad effects of imperialism?
-leads to rebellion
-bad relations with countries
-countries are colonized, then abandoned
what was the hay-pavnceforte agreement?
GB gave up it's right to participate in any Central American canal project
what was TRS big stick policy?
TRs plan to be kind, but have other countries know where you stand
-have a strong navy
-US should be police of Western Hemisphere
How did the us get land for the Panama Canal?
At first, tr tried to lease the strip of land from Columbia, but Columbia knocked down this proposal.
Then, when Panama began an independence movement from Columbia, US paid $20 mill to Columbia and recognized panama then got a lease on the Canal Zone.
what was the roosevelt crollary?
1904: claimed that because of instability in the caribbean, us would need police if the region.
US would intervene in Western Hemisphere affairs
European powers had to stay out of the Western Hemisphere
An addition to the Monroe doctrine
what was the open door policy?
what did america need to fnd a foreign market for their products?
why did president McKinley decide to keep the philippines?
● Asian markets
● Didn't want European powers to take control of it
● Their government was unstable, we should do it for them.
what were three arguments for imperialism?
why did the US decide to go to war with Spain?
● USS Maine explosion
● Wanted to help Cuban rebels
● Humanitarian idealism
● Blocking trade (sugar cane)
● Yellow journalism/public opinion
● Monroe doctrine
○ Get European powers out of Western Hemisphere
what w ere the comsequences oft he spanish american war?
● Phillipines Guam, Puerto Rico
● Spain gets $20 million
What happened after we took the Philippines?
● Philippine rebels
● Got indepdence in 1946
Why did we feel we needed the open door policy?
● Spheres of influence
● Knock out European powers from china
What group opposed expansionism
Who were the Kniohts of Labor?
A labor movement that envisioned a nation in which workers owned the means of production.
KOL blieved in INDUSTRIAL UNIONISM
-it did not encourage strikes between employers and emplyees, but rather a COOPERATIVE COMMONWEALTH (Union negotiating for contracts and pay for employees)
Who was the leader of the Knights of Labor?
Terrence V. Powderly
What was the AFL?
The American Federation of Labor
Who was the leader of the AFL?
What did the AFL advocate for?
Pure and simple unionism (aka bread and butter issues):
1) Wages increased
2) Working hours shortened
3) Working Conditions improved
Who were the Industrial Workers of the World?
-supported Marxist class struggle
-believed in strikes
-led by Boyce and Haywood
What was the Railroad Strike of 1877?
the railroad protested budget cuts, so they stopped production.
-state militia was called and troops invaded, killing citizens.
What was the Haymarket affair of 1886?
Began as a strike with the goal of an 8 hour workday.
During strike, strikers were killed and two days later, anarchists held a rally and a bomb was thrown at police
What was the Homestead Strike of 1892?
The contract at Carnegie's steel mill expired, so the Amalgamated Association (union at mill) came.
-Clay hate unions so he shuts down factory and shuts out workers.
-hired Pinkertons shoot steel workers
What was political patronage? (aka spoils system)
Politicians would reward supporters with government jobs.
Describe the democratic and republican parties during the gilded age.
Both parties were pro-business and pro-sound currency