Who is known as the "Father of the Constitution" and why?
Describe the Constitutional Convention and the delegates who attended.
Benjamin Franklin (He was in very bad health and rarely attended), George Washington, and James Madison. It was to fix the Articles of Confederation.
What did the Constitutional Convention do that the U.S. Congress today does not do?
They kept it all secret.
What was the Virginia Plan? Which states liked it?
It called for a two- house legislature; number of members would be determined by populations, larger states would have more representatives (votes)
What was the New Jersey Plan? Which states like it?
It said that each state would have one vote no matter the size or population. Congress would keep the powers it had under the Articles of Confederation but would gain the powers to tax and to regulate trade among the states. Rhode Island.
Describe the Great Compromise.
The convention made a committee of one delegate from each state to work out a solution. It said congress would be made of two houses, upper and lower. Upper house called the senate would be chosen buy state legislature. NO MATTER THE SIZE, each state would have two senators. Lower house A.K.A. House of Representatives would be chosen directly by the people, number of representatives would be based on population. The Compromise passed in a very close vote.
Describe Separation of Powers.
It created the 3 branches
Describe Checks and Balances; be able to give examples of checks for each branch.
It gives each branch control over the other branches. Example, Executive can veto a bill passed by Legislative branch; Legislative branch can decide the law is unconstitutional.
Explain the 3/5 Compromise. What else was written into the Constitution about slavery? Why?
They couldn't agree about counting slaves as people so they decided that they were going to make each slave 3/5 of a person
Once the Constitution was finished, what was the opinion of the delegates about the document?
What is the Bill of Rights? Why was it added to the Constitution?
The Bill of Rights was added to the American constitution to compensate for the lack of a provision to protect certain universal rights of the citizens in the original constitution.
The number of a state's representatives is decided based on what?
The number of a state's senators is decided based on what?
Explain the amendment process for the U.S. Constitution.
Two-Thirds of both houses of congress must approve an amendment before it goes to the states. Then three-fourths of state legislatures must approve it before it is ratified and becomes part of the constitution.
Who was the first chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court?
Why did Alexander Hamilton believe he needed to start a Bank of the United States?
To print paper currency, loan money to farmers and businesses, deposit tariff money.
When George Washington left the office of the president, what in particular did he believe was a threat to the United States?
Foreign wars. America was too young and weak to worry about interests other than its own.
Who was the first president of the United States? Who was the first vice-president of the United States?
George Washington and John Adams
Who was the second president of the United States? Who was the second vice-president of the United States?
John Adams and Thomas Jefferson
Describe the Whiskey Rebellion. Why did it start? How did it end?
A tax was placed on all liquor made/sold in the U.S. to raise money for the U.S. treasury. Farmers of corn (The main ingredient in whiskey) rebelled by marching and tarring and feathering tax collectors. Washington called the militia who ended the rebellion Washington pardoned the leaders
How did the administration that took office in 1797 happen to have a Federalist President and a Democratic-Republican Vice-President?
What is federalism?
Federalism is a political system that allows states united under a central government to maintain a measure of independence.
Federalism, Separation of Powers, and Checks and Balances were all intended to avoid what?
Abuse of power
When George Washington was president, where was the nation's capital?
New York City
Describe the beliefs of the Federalists and of the Democratic-Republicans.
Federalists believed in a strong national government that could exert more power over the states. They wished to be able to tax the states to pay for Federal programs, supported the creation of a National Bank, and supported efforts for federal control over interstate commerce. The Democratic Republicans believed that people should have the greater impact