The condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time & place.
The envelope of gas that surrounds Earth.
A form of oxygen that has 3 oxygen atoms in each molecule.
Water in the form of a gas.
The amount of mass of a substance in a given volume.
The amount of force pushing on an area.
The pressure caused y the weight of a column of air pushing down on an area.
An instrument used to measure changes in air pressure.
The elevation above sea level.
The lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere.
The layer of the Earth's atmosphere above the stratosphere.
The lower part of the thermosphere.
The second lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere.
The outermost layer of the Earth's atmosphere.
The outer layer of the atmosphere.
Waves that transfer electric and magnetic energy through the vacuum of space.
The direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.
Electromagnetic waves with wavelengths that are LONGER than visible light but shorter than microwaves.
Electromagnetic waves with waveslengths that are SHORTER than visible light but longer than x-rays.
The reflection of light in all directions.
The process by which heat is trapped in the atmosphere by gases that form a "blanket" around Earth.
A measure of how hot or cold an object is compared to a reference point.
The total energy of motion in the particles of a substance.
An instrument used to measure temperature.
The transfer of thermal energy from one object to another because of a differnce in temperature.
The direct transfer of thermal energy.
The transfer of thermal energy by the movement of a fluid (like air).
The circulation of a fluid (like air) as it alternatly heats up (rises) and cools down (sinks).
The horizontal (side to side) movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure.
An instrument used to measure wind speed.
A measure of cooling by combining tamperature & wind speed.
Winds that blow over short distances.
The flow of cooler air from over an ocean (or lake) towards land.
the flow of air from land to a body of water.
Winds that blow steadily from specific directions over LONG distances.
The change that Earth's rotation causes in the motion of objects. It explains how winds curve.
Bands of high speed winds about 10 kms above Earth's surface.
The continual movement of water amoung Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and landsurface through evaporation, condensation and precipitation.
the process by which water molecules in liquid water escape in to the air as water vapor.
The amount of water vapor in a given volume of air.
The percentage of water vapor in the air COMPARED to the maximum amount of water vapor that th air can contain at a particular temperature.
An instrument used to measure relative humidity.
the process by which molecules of water vapor in the air becomes LIQUID water.
The temperature at which condensation begins.
Wispy, feathery clouds made up of ICE crystals that form at high levels.
Fluffy white clouds, usually with a flat bottom, that look like rounded piles of cotton.
Clouds that form in flat layers and often cover much of the sky.
A huge body of air that has similar temperature, humidity and air pressure at any given height.
tropical air mass
A warm air mass that forms in the tropics and has lower air pressure.
polar air mass
A cold air mass that forms north of 50 degrees north latitude OR south of 50 degrees south latitude and has high air pressure.
continental air mass
A dry air mass that forms over land.
The boundry where unlike air masses meet but do not mix.
Cut offf. As in a front where a warm air mass is caught between two cooler air masses.
A swirling center of low air pressure.
A high pressure center of higher dry air.
A violent disturbance in the atmosphere.
A small storm often acompanied by precipitation and frequent thunder & lightning.
A sudden spark or energy discharge caused when electrical charges JUMP between parts of a cloud, between nearby clouds, or between a cloud and the Earth.
A rapidly swirling funnel shaped cloud that reaches down to touch Earth's surface.
A tropical storm that has winds of about 119 km/h or higher.
A "dome" of water that sweeps across the coast where a hurricane lands.
To withdraw from or vacate a place or area, especially as a protective measure.
Scientists who study the causes of weather and try to predict it.
a line on a weather map that joins places that have tha same air pressure.
A line on the a weather map that joins places that have the same temperature.
The average, year after year, conditions of temperature,precipitation, winds, and clouds in an area.
Climate conditions within a small area that differ from those in the surrounding area.
The area near the equator, between 23.5 degrees north latitude and 23.5 degrees south latitude.
the areas near both poles from 66.5 to 90 degrees north and 66.5 to 90 degrees south.
The areas between the polar and tropical zones.
the climate of some coastal regions, with relatively warm winters and cool summers.
the climate of the centers of continents with cold winters and and warm/hot summers.
the side of a mountain range that faces the oncoming winds.
The side of a mountain range that faces AWAY from oncoming winds.
Sea or land breeze over a large region that CHANGES direction with the seasons.
A forest in the tropical wet climate zone.
A tropical grassland with clumps of trees.
an arid region that on average receives less than 25 cm of rain each year.
A prairie or grassland found in semiarid regions.
A wet warm climate found on the edges of the tropics.
A climate zone that lies north of the humid continental climates.
a polar climate region, with short, cool summers and very cold winters.
Permanently frozen soil found in the tundra climate region.
Cold periods in Earth's history during which glaciers covered large parts of the surface.
Relatively dark cool regions on the surface of the sun.
A climate event in the Pacific Ocean during which winds shift and push warm water toward the coast of South America.
A climate event in the eastern Pacific Ocean in which surface waters are colder than normal.
A gradual increase in the average temperature of Earth's atmosphere.
Gases in the atmosphere that trap energy.
Chlorine compounds that are the main cause of ozone depletion.