English Monarchy & English Revolution Test

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Henry VII

First tudor King, made England strong and prosperous

Mary I

devoted Catholic; tried to destroy Anglican Church, burned may people at the stake; "Bloody Mary"

Philip II

wife of Mary I

Elizabeth I

half sister of Mary I, protestad, never married/ had kids, had her closest relative, Mary Queen of Scotts killed

Mary Queen of Scotts

closest relative of Elizabeth I, was beheaded by her

James I

son of MQS, from Stuart family; liked the Anglican Church

Charles I

son of James I, made petition of right, liked Anglican Church, was eventually beheaded

Spanish Armada

fleet of ships launched by Phillip II, defeated by England

Puritans

objected Anglican Church, wanted to purify English church

Parliament

passed laws/ applied taxes

House of Lords

made of Nobles / Clergy

House of Commons

made of gentry / burgesses

Gentry

landowners

Burgesses

merchants/ professional people

Petition of Right, 1628

1- King can't tax people without parliament's permission. 2- Can't declare martial law. 3- Can't board soldiers in private areas during peacetime. 4- can't imprison a person without a specific charge.

Presbyterians

form of protestantism that was the religion of Scotland

Anglican Church

created by Henry VIII

Long Parliament

Charles I met with his parliament on and off for 20 years

Cavaliers

supported kings in english civil war

Roundheads

supported Parliament in english civil war

Rump Parliament

controlled by Oliver Cromwell that abolished the monarchy and proclaimed england a republic

New Model Army

Cromwells powerful army that defeated King Charles in English civil war.

Commonwealth

republic

Oliver Cromwell

dictatorish of england; dissolved parliament, encouraged trade

Richard Cromwell

Son of Oliver Cromwell, was weak and the strong army failed

Charles II

comes back to rule bc Richard sucks at life.

Restoration

when english monarchy was restored

Whigs

<3 parliament, no catholic rulers!

Tories

<3 Anglican Church, eh, catholics cool.

Glorious Revolution

bloodless transfer of power

William III

invited to rule england w/ Mary II. Noooooo kids.

Mary II

invited to rule in england with William III; daughter of James II

Tomas Hobbes

Philosopher that argued that people sacrificed their individual liberties for group safety and order.

John Locke

english philosopher that thinks people should have individual rights and they were superior to gov't laws.

Habeas corpus

protected people from unlawful punishment

English bill of rights

document that established that parliament had the power to choose who would govern England. Also stated that the monarch needed approval for taxes and to raise an army.

Toleration Act

granted some religious freedom to non Anglican protestants

Act of Settlement

Act that stipulated that the nearest Protestant relative of Hanover would be King if Queen Anne had no living children. This was passed to stop a Catholic was taking the throne.

Role of Parliament

Kings / Queens had to consult with Parliament in order to do something

Cabinet

heads of gov't departments

Magna Carta

"Great charter" ; english document that made the law the Supreme power

John Cabot

explored modern Canada; specifically Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and parts of New England

Sir Francis Drake

part of the sea dogs

Sea Dogs

sea captians/ explorers

Bitish East India Company

most powerful trading company

Henry Hudson

explorer that tried to find the NW passage but ended up getting lost somewhere in northern Canada

Northwest Passage

Water passage that went around North America to Asia

Mercantillism

Economic system was used to manage English colonies in North America

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