11th grade- physical science: MAIA

75 terms by afarwick

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motion

a natural event that involves a change in the position or location of something

speed

distance traveled per unit time

average speed

a rate of motion determined by dividing the total distance traveled by the total travel time

instantaneous speed

The speed at any given point in time

velocity

Speed in a given direction.

slope

the steepness of a line on a graph, equal to its vertical change divided by its horizontal change

plate tectonics

the study of large scale movement and deformation of the earth's outer layers in terms of rigid plates over a partly molten layer of the upper mantle

acceleration

The rate at which velocity changes

Force

a push or pull exerted on an object

Net Force

The overall force on an object when all the individual forces acting on it are added together

Friction

the force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface

Gravity

the force that pulls objects toward each other

Mass

a body of matter without definite shape

Weight

the vertical force exerted by a mass as a result of gravity

Free Fall

the motion of a falling object when the only force acting on it is gravity

Terminal velocity

the constant velocity of a falling object when the force of air resistance is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of gravity

projectile

an object thrown into the air with great force

inertia

the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion

momentum

the product of a body's mass and its velocity

conservation of momentum

Momentum of a system remains constant when there are no net external forces acting on it.

satellite

any celestial body orbiting around a planet or star

centripetal force

any force that causes an object to move in a circular path

pressure

the force applied to a unit area of surface

fluid

a continuous amorphous substance that tends to flow and to conform to the outline of its container: a liquid or a gas

buoyant force

upward force exerted on an object immersed in a fluid

density

mass divided by volume

Archimedes principle

the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object

Hydraulic system

a system that multiplies force by transmitting pressure from a small surface area through a confined fluid to a larger surface area

Work

Force x Distance

Power

(physics) the rate of doing work

Machine

any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of human tasks

Mechanical advantage

the number of times that a machine increases an input force

efficiency of machines

A comparison of the output work to the input work

Energy

The capacity to do work or to produce heat

Kinetic energy

the energy of motion

potential energy

the energy that an object has because of the position, shape, or condition of the object

types of energy

radiant energy, chemical energy, mechanical energy, electrical and thermal energy, nuclear energy

matter

that which has mass and occupies space

fossil fuel

a nonrenewable energy resource formed from the remains of organisms that lived long ago; examples include oil, coal, and natural gas

combustion

a process in which a substance reacts with oxygen to give heat and light

temperature

A measure of the average energy of motion of the particles of a substance

absolute zero

The coldest temperature, 0 Kelvin, that can be reached. It is the hypothetical temperature at which all molecular motion stops.

heat

the movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature

specific heat

the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance 1 degree Celsius

Conduction

the direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching

Convection

the transfer of heat by the movement of currents within a fluid

Radiation

the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves

Conductor

a device designed to transmit electricity, heat, etc.

Insulator

a material that does not allow heat or electrons to move through it easily.

change of state

The conversion of a substance from one physical form to another

thermal expansion

The increase in volume of a substance due to an increase in temperature

engine

motor that converts thermal energy to mechanical work

refrigerator

a device that uses outside energy source to transfer thermal energy from a cool area to a warm area

Magnet

(physics) a device that attracts iron and produces a magnetic field

magnetic pole

one of the two ends of a magnet where the magnetism seems to be concentrated

magnetic field lines

Invisible lines that map out the magnetic field around a magnet

Atom

smallest particle of an element

Compass

an instrument for showing directions, consisting of a needle or compass card that points to the north magnetic pole, which is near the North Pole.

Solar Wind

continuous stream of high-energy particles released into space in all direction from the sun's corona

Electric field

the region around a charged object where the object's electric force interacts with other charged objects

electric current

the continuous flow of electric charges through a material

electric circuit

a complete, unbroken path through which electric charges can flow

conductor

a substance that readily conducts e.g. electricity and heat

insulator

a material through which electric current DOES NOT pass easily

voltage

the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts

resistance

an electrical device that resists the flow of electrical current

battery

A source of stored chemical energy for electric currents, having a positive (+) and a negative (-) terminal.

series circuit

a circuit in which all parts are connected in a single loop

parallel circuit

a closed electrical circuit in which the current is divided into two or more paths and then returns via a common path to complete the circuit

Ammeter

a device used to measure current in a circuit

Voltmeter

a device used to measure voltage, or electrical potential energy difference

Electrical power

the product of voltage and current

short circuit

a connection that allows current to take an unintended path

fuse

electrical device that can interrupt the flow of electrical current when it is overloaded

circuit breaker

a device that trips like a switch and opens the circuit when overloaded

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