# 11th grade- physical science: MAIA

### 75 terms by afarwick

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### motion

a natural event that involves a change in the position or location of something

### speed

distance traveled per unit time

### average speed

a rate of motion determined by dividing the total distance traveled by the total travel time

### instantaneous speed

The speed at any given point in time

### velocity

Speed in a given direction.

### slope

the steepness of a line on a graph, equal to its vertical change divided by its horizontal change

### plate tectonics

the study of large scale movement and deformation of the earth's outer layers in terms of rigid plates over a partly molten layer of the upper mantle

### acceleration

The rate at which velocity changes

### Force

a push or pull exerted on an object

### Net Force

The overall force on an object when all the individual forces acting on it are added together

### Friction

the force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface

### Gravity

the force that pulls objects toward each other

### Mass

a body of matter without definite shape

### Weight

the vertical force exerted by a mass as a result of gravity

### Free Fall

the motion of a falling object when the only force acting on it is gravity

### Terminal velocity

the constant velocity of a falling object when the force of air resistance is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of gravity

### projectile

an object thrown into the air with great force

### inertia

the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion

### momentum

the product of a body's mass and its velocity

### conservation of momentum

Momentum of a system remains constant when there are no net external forces acting on it.

### satellite

any celestial body orbiting around a planet or star

### centripetal force

any force that causes an object to move in a circular path

### pressure

the force applied to a unit area of surface

### fluid

a continuous amorphous substance that tends to flow and to conform to the outline of its container: a liquid or a gas

### buoyant force

upward force exerted on an object immersed in a fluid

### density

mass divided by volume

### Archimedes principle

the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object

### Hydraulic system

a system that multiplies force by transmitting pressure from a small surface area through a confined fluid to a larger surface area

Force x Distance

### Power

(physics) the rate of doing work

### Machine

any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of human tasks

the number of times that a machine increases an input force

### efficiency of machines

A comparison of the output work to the input work

### Energy

The capacity to do work or to produce heat

### Kinetic energy

the energy of motion

### potential energy

the energy that an object has because of the position, shape, or condition of the object

### types of energy

radiant energy, chemical energy, mechanical energy, electrical and thermal energy, nuclear energy

### matter

that which has mass and occupies space

### fossil fuel

a nonrenewable energy resource formed from the remains of organisms that lived long ago; examples include oil, coal, and natural gas

### combustion

a process in which a substance reacts with oxygen to give heat and light

### temperature

A measure of the average energy of motion of the particles of a substance

### absolute zero

The coldest temperature, 0 Kelvin, that can be reached. It is the hypothetical temperature at which all molecular motion stops.

### heat

the movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature

### specific heat

the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance 1 degree Celsius

### Conduction

the direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching

### Convection

the transfer of heat by the movement of currents within a fluid

the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves

### Conductor

a device designed to transmit electricity, heat, etc.

### Insulator

a material that does not allow heat or electrons to move through it easily.

### change of state

The conversion of a substance from one physical form to another

### thermal expansion

The increase in volume of a substance due to an increase in temperature

### engine

motor that converts thermal energy to mechanical work

### refrigerator

a device that uses outside energy source to transfer thermal energy from a cool area to a warm area

### Magnet

(physics) a device that attracts iron and produces a magnetic field

### magnetic pole

one of the two ends of a magnet where the magnetism seems to be concentrated

### magnetic field lines

Invisible lines that map out the magnetic field around a magnet

### Atom

smallest particle of an element

### Compass

an instrument for showing directions, consisting of a needle or compass card that points to the north magnetic pole, which is near the North Pole.

### Solar Wind

continuous stream of high-energy particles released into space in all direction from the sun's corona

### Electric field

the region around a charged object where the object's electric force interacts with other charged objects

### electric current

the continuous flow of electric charges through a material

### electric circuit

a complete, unbroken path through which electric charges can flow

### conductor

a substance that readily conducts e.g. electricity and heat

### insulator

a material through which electric current DOES NOT pass easily

### voltage

the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts

### resistance

an electrical device that resists the flow of electrical current

### battery

A source of stored chemical energy for electric currents, having a positive (+) and a negative (-) terminal.

### series circuit

a circuit in which all parts are connected in a single loop

### parallel circuit

a closed electrical circuit in which the current is divided into two or more paths and then returns via a common path to complete the circuit

### Ammeter

a device used to measure current in a circuit

### Voltmeter

a device used to measure voltage, or electrical potential energy difference

### Electrical power

the product of voltage and current

### short circuit

a connection that allows current to take an unintended path

### fuse

electrical device that can interrupt the flow of electrical current when it is overloaded

### circuit breaker

a device that trips like a switch and opens the circuit when overloaded

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