What is a personality trait?
A predisposition to act in a particular way.
How can you determine whether a test is standardized?
Determine whether the test has a known distribution of scores.
When given to people of various ethnic and cultural groups, what does the MMPI reveal?
It reveals only small differences between groups.
The MMPI includes some items that most people check true, such as "Occasionally I get angry at someone." Why?
To check whether people are answering honestly.
What is the MMPI used for?
To measure personality tendencies.
Why would a psychologist use a projective test rather than just asking a person to talk about themselves?
The projective test should be more effective in getting a person to start talking.
As compared to objective personality tests, projective personality tests have what disadvantage?
Their results are hard to interpret and subject to the psychologist's expectations.
Responses on implicit personality tests, such as Implicit Association Test, are...?
Difficult to fake.
Research on the Emotional Stroop test has shown that people tend to show _____ response times to items that have emotional significance to them.
Although criminal profiling is possible, the majority of criminals give ____.
The same, vague information.
Why is it especially difficult to develop good measures of personality?
We are trying to measure how someone acts in general, but their behavior may change from moment to moment.
A measure of personality that produces consistent or repeatable scores has ____, and a measure of personality that predicts something useful, such as actual behavior, has ____.
Factor analysis can be used to do what?
Identify traits that are highly correlated.
The big five personality dimensions are:
Neuroticism, extraversion, openness to new experiences, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.
Which two traits do most personality theorists agree are the most powerful?
Neuroticism and extraversion.
One criticism of the Big Five personality factors is that this model does what?
Ignores any trait for which our language has few words.
One of the main ways psychologists have studied the causes of differences in personality among people is to do what?
Compare the similarities in personality between identical twins and fraternal twins.
According to research, our personality gets more ____ as we age.
What is the Barnum effect?
The tendency to accept vague statements about our personality.
What are the two important factors behind standardized testing?
1. The exact rules/procedures for all tests
2. The same scoring/environment
What is the MMPI?
The most widely used personality test; used on people w/o disorders. (567 t/f)
What does a projective test do?
Encourages a person to project their personality onto an ambiguous stimuli?
What are two examples of a projective test?
1. Rorschach inkblot
2. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
What is a way to describe a Implicit Association test?
If a color is red, and word is used like cherry or apple, the person picks up on the word apple or cherry quicker because it is colored in red on the paper as well.
What does an Implicit test do?
It measures response speed between topic and positive/negative words.
Are the results useful from an Implicit test?
Not for real life decisions.
What is a Psychological Disorder described as?
Behaviors or mental problems that cause an individual some type of stress.
What is the classification system of DSM-IV-TR?
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is published by the American Psychiatric Association and provides a common knowledge and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
What is The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders book known as?
What is The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders book used to do?
1. Classifying disorders
2. Diagnose disorders
What are six classes of disorders?
1. Anxiety disorders
2. Dissociative disorders
3. Somatoform disorders
4. Mood disorders
6. Personality disorders
What are five anxiety disorders?
2. Panic disorder
3. Generalized anxiety disorder
4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder
5. Stress disorder
What are Specific Phobias?
Excessive, irrational fears of specific objects or situations.
What are three examples of specific phobias?
3. Acrophobia (heights)
What is a social phobia?
Persistent fears of scrutiny by others.
What is Agoraphobia?
The fear of being out in open/busy areas.
What is a panic disorder?
Acute anxiety that is not triggered by a specific object or situation.
What is Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)?
Persistent anxiety and constant worry.
Its not really associated with anything.
What does obsessions mean in OCD?
Recurrent anxiety thoughts; irrational.
What do compulsions mean in OCD?
Behaviors (they do it to reduce the anxiety)
What is PTSD?
Rapid heart rate/ feelings or anxiety that are caused by a traumatic experience & flashbacks.
What is Acute stress disorder?
It occurs within a month of an event; lasts two days to four weeks.
What are dissociative disorders?
Separation of mental processes.
What are three dissociative disorders?
3. Identity disorder
What is dissociative amnesia?
Loss of episodic memories.. (hours to years)
What happens in Dissociative Fugue?
1. Memory loss of past life
2. Flees to new location
3. Adopts new identity
(2% of population)
What are four theories of identity disorders?
1. Express unacceptable impulses
2. Block bad memories
3. Avoid guilt/shame
4. Avoid responsibility
What is a somatoform disorder?
It's manifested by physical symptoms that cause reduced functioning. No physical abnormalities.
What is a conversion disorder?
It 'converts' stress into a physical difficulty, not intentional.
What is 'hypochondriasis'?
An irrational concern about having a serious disease (1-5% of population)
What are two symptoms of mdd or major depressive disorder?
loss of self-esteem
What are the three attributional styles?
internal vs external
stable vs unstable
global vs specific
What is known about women when it comes to depression?
They are twice as likely to be depressed, because women are more stressed easily.
What is bipolar disorder?
What are mood swings?
Cycles of elation and depression
If your neighbor thinks government agencies are out to get her and that her phone is bugged, what is that called?
Ideas of persecution.
_____ theory suggests that depression is caused by anger that is turned inward.
Pessimism and self-criticism are ___ factors in depression.
Schizophrenic symptoms include core problems with ____.
Memory, attention, thinking and communication.
Systematized delusions of grandeur, persecution, and/or jealousy, often involving themes of persecutions and wrongdoing, are observed in patients diagnosed with ___.
Floyd's therapist believes that his hallucinations and delusions are more rewarding to Floyd than social interactions. Floyd's therapist endorses the ___ view of schizophrenia.
The observation that concordance rates for schizophrenia are high in identical twins suggest what?
There is a biological basis for the disorder.
An important neurotransmitter involved in schizophrenic symptoms is what?
Tom is a loner, who has few friends and seems incapable of sympathy or empathy. He is showing signs of the ___ personality disorder.
In regards to the antisocial personality disorder, the psychodynamic perspective is to ____ as the learning perspective is to ___.
Weak superego; experience.
What is a possible risk factor for suicide?
Your best friend discloses the fact that they are thinking of committing suicide. What should you do?
Take them seriously; show you care and encourage them to seek help.
Which group of people is prone to suicide?
Young people age 15 to 24.
The psychodynamic perspective views the obsessive compulsive disorder as connected to a _____.
If Cory got in a car wreck and killed his best friend and can't remember anything in the morning, what is that called?
_____ involves a claim of psychological disability in order to escape responsibility.
Somatoform disorders involve _____.
the conversion of anxiety into a physical form.
Elation and depression are symptoms of _____ disorder.
What theory did Freud come up with?
The Analytic theory. (blank slate)
What is psychodynamic theories based off of?
Who was involved in client centered therapy?
What happens in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy?
Thoughts and beliefs that cause distress can be modified.
How are things modified in cognitive therapy?
Interpreting maladaptive patterns in thoughts and behaviors.
What is Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy?
Challenges to correct irrational expectations and thoughts.
Behavior Modification Therapy
Applying learning principles to promote desired behavior change.
Observing and imitating.
Aversive conditioning therapy
Pairing problem behaviors with unpleasant stimuli
Systematic desensitization therapy
client slowly exposed to phobia
Token economy therapy
tokens for good behavior
function analysis therapy
a - antecedent
b - behavior
c - consequence
What is groups therapy helpful for?
addictions and grief
(comfortable in #s)
What do drug therapies do?
affect serotonin in the brain (ssri's)
what is lithium?
mood stabilizer used for bipolar disorder
what is ect treatment?
electroconvulsive, last result,
side effect: memory loss
A therapist's relationship to the client is impacted by the ____.
Interaction of the therapists theoretical approach and the client's perspective.
To change a client's nail biting behavior, the client is instructed to paint their nails with a coating that tastes terrible. This is a(n) ____ method.
Token economy is a behavioral treatment approach based on ____ conditioning principles.
____ therapists focus on beliefs and attitudes that create and compound their clients' psychological problems.
Selective perception and a tendency to overgeneralize are ____as defined by Aaron Beck.
Cognitive errors or distortions.
One advantage to group therapy is that it is ____.
It is easiest to measure the outcomes of ____ goals in therapy.
Most antianxiety drugs belong to the chemical class known as
Prefrontal lobotomy, a failed ____ procedure, involved severing the nerve connections between the prefrontal lobes and the thalamus.
Cognitive therapy provides____that reduce the risk of recurrence of depression when treatment ends.
The function of early asylums was to ____.
provide a place to store the mentally ill.
Psychodynamic therapies assume that psychological disorders originate in
early childhood experiences and inner conflicts.
A goal of psychoanalysiswas to strengthen the psychic structure that Freud called the
Client-centered therapy focuses on how childhood experiences create ____ which adversely affect the client's current functioning.
denial of self
In client-centered therapy, the therapist tries to set aside his or her own values and experiences and view the world through the client's
frame of reference.
Gestalt therapy differs from client-centered therapy in that Gestalt approaches are
Behavior therapy applies the principles of ____ to modify behavior.
One of the most successful techniques for overcoming phobias is __.
Person perception refers to the process of __.
forming impressions of others.
Research shows that initial attraction __.
is greatly influenced by physical attractiveness.
Which of the following is NOT one of the crucial dimensions of attitudes?
When advertisers use extremely attractive models to demonstrate their products, they are relying, in part, on the power of ____ to change consumers' attitudes.
Matthew often hears his parents discussing the importance of making lots of money. Eventually, Matthew himself begins to value a high income. Matthew's attitude about money was acquired through ___.
Cognitive dissonance theory accounts for Festinger and Carlsmith's (1959) results by proposing that subjects paid ___.
20$ to lie had sufficient justification for their counter attitudinal behavior and experienced little dissonance.
Cognitive dissonance refers to the state one is in when ___.
cognitions are inconsistent.
Conformity occurs when people change their behavior
in response to real or imagined social pressure.
In Milgram's (1963) study of obedience, subjects
were ordered to deliver painful electric shocks to a stranger.
Social schemas are best defined as ___.
organized clusters of ideas about people or social events.
Why are stereotypes resistant to change?
Consigning deviants to a subtype that is viewed as unrepresentative of the group allows people to preserve their stereotype of the group
Marsha believes that all news reporters are cynical, doubting individuals who would sell their souls for an exclusive story. In this case, Marsha's beliefs about the traits and behaviors of news reporters are one example of
A group that one belongs to and identify themselves with is known as:
When we make assumptions about why people do what they do we are making:
If you tend to overemphasize internal characteristics in explaining the behavior of others, you are evidencing the:
fundamental attribution error.
According to the notion of defensive attribution, we tend to explain the setbacks that befall other people in terms of
Attributing one's successes to dispositional factors and one's failures to situational factors is referred to as
a self-serving bias.
Putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes is referred to as
conceived by the way thoughts and feelings and behaviors are influenced.
group of ideas about certain events and people.
beliefs people have about people.
when people estimate having encountered more confirmations of stereotypes then they've actually seen.
Cause of behavior is __.
situational and related to environment
is blaming the person when something goes wrong for them.
is blaming someone else when something goes wrong for your friend.
Fundamental Attribution Error:
Observer's tendency to use internal attributions when explaining other's behavior.
Tendency to blame victims so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way. (ie homeless ppl)
In individualism vs. collectivism...individualism is:
when personal goals come first.
group goals are ahead of personal goals
attribute successes to personal factors & attribute failure to situational factors (ie passing test)
positive feels we experience toward another person.
What is the matching hypothesis?
We select people who are at the same level of good looking.
liking those who like you.
Love has what two parts?
intimacy and sharing