How can you determine whether a test is standardized?
Determine whether the test has a known distribution of scores.
When given to people of various ethnic and cultural groups, what does the MMPI reveal?
It reveals only small differences between groups.
The MMPI includes some items that most people check true, such as "Occasionally I get angry at someone." Why?
To check whether people are answering honestly.
Why would a psychologist use a projective test rather than just asking a person to talk about themselves?
The projective test should be more effective in getting a person to start talking.
As compared to objective personality tests, projective personality tests have what disadvantage?
Their results are hard to interpret and subject to the psychologist's expectations.
Responses on implicit personality tests, such as Implicit Association Test, are...?
Difficult to fake.
Research on the Emotional Stroop test has shown that people tend to show _____ response times to items that have emotional significance to them.
Although criminal profiling is possible, the majority of criminals give ____.
The same, vague information.
Why is it especially difficult to develop good measures of personality?
We are trying to measure how someone acts in general, but their behavior may change from moment to moment.
A measure of personality that produces consistent or repeatable scores has ____, and a measure of personality that predicts something useful, such as actual behavior, has ____.
The big five personality dimensions are:
Neuroticism, extraversion, openness to new experiences, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.
Which two traits do most personality theorists agree are the most powerful?
Neuroticism and extraversion.
One criticism of the Big Five personality factors is that this model does what?
Ignores any trait for which our language has few words.
One of the main ways psychologists have studied the causes of differences in personality among people is to do what?
Compare the similarities in personality between identical twins and fraternal twins.
What are the two important factors behind standardized testing?
1. The exact rules/procedures for all tests
2. The same scoring/environment
What does a projective test do?
Encourages a person to project their personality onto an ambiguous stimuli?
What are two examples of a projective test?
1. Rorschach inkblot
2. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
What is a way to describe a Implicit Association test?
If a color is red, and word is used like cherry or apple, the person picks up on the word apple or cherry quicker because it is colored in red on the paper as well.
What does an Implicit test do?
It measures response speed between topic and positive/negative words.
What is a Psychological Disorder described as?
Behaviors or mental problems that cause an individual some type of stress.
What is the classification system of DSM-IV-TR?
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is published by the American Psychiatric Association and provides a common knowledge and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
What is The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders book known as?
What is The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders book used to do?
1. Classifying disorders
2. Diagnose disorders
What are six classes of disorders?
1. Anxiety disorders
2. Dissociative disorders
3. Somatoform disorders
4. Mood disorders
6. Personality disorders
What are five anxiety disorders?
2. Panic disorder
3. Generalized anxiety disorder
4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder
5. Stress disorder
What are three examples of specific phobias?
3. Acrophobia (heights)
What is Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)?
Persistent anxiety and constant worry.
Its not really associated with anything.
What is PTSD?
Rapid heart rate/ feelings or anxiety that are caused by a traumatic experience & flashbacks.
What happens in Dissociative Fugue?
1. Memory loss of past life
2. Flees to new location
3. Adopts new identity
(2% of population)
What are four theories of identity disorders?
1. Express unacceptable impulses
2. Block bad memories
3. Avoid guilt/shame
4. Avoid responsibility
What is a somatoform disorder?
It's manifested by physical symptoms that cause reduced functioning. No physical abnormalities.
What is 'hypochondriasis'?
An irrational concern about having a serious disease (1-5% of population)
What are two symptoms of mdd or major depressive disorder?
loss of self-esteem
What is known about women when it comes to depression?
They are twice as likely to be depressed, because women are more stressed easily.
If your neighbor thinks government agencies are out to get her and that her phone is bugged, what is that called?
Ideas of persecution.
Schizophrenic symptoms include core problems with ____.
Memory, attention, thinking and communication.
Systematized delusions of grandeur, persecution, and/or jealousy, often involving themes of persecutions and wrongdoing, are observed in patients diagnosed with ___.
Floyd's therapist believes that his hallucinations and delusions are more rewarding to Floyd than social interactions. Floyd's therapist endorses the ___ view of schizophrenia.
The observation that concordance rates for schizophrenia are high in identical twins suggest what?
There is a biological basis for the disorder.
Tom is a loner, who has few friends and seems incapable of sympathy or empathy. He is showing signs of the ___ personality disorder.
In regards to the antisocial personality disorder, the psychodynamic perspective is to ____ as the learning perspective is to ___.
Weak superego; experience.
Your best friend discloses the fact that they are thinking of committing suicide. What should you do?
Take them seriously; show you care and encourage them to seek help.
The psychodynamic perspective views the obsessive compulsive disorder as connected to a _____.
If Cory got in a car wreck and killed his best friend and can't remember anything in the morning, what is that called?
What happens in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy?
Thoughts and beliefs that cause distress can be modified.
How are things modified in cognitive therapy?
Interpreting maladaptive patterns in thoughts and behaviors.
What is Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy?
Challenges to correct irrational expectations and thoughts.
A therapist's relationship to the client is impacted by the ____.
Interaction of the therapists theoretical approach and the client's perspective.
To change a client's nail biting behavior, the client is instructed to paint their nails with a coating that tastes terrible. This is a(n) ____ method.
____ therapists focus on beliefs and attitudes that create and compound their clients' psychological problems.
Selective perception and a tendency to overgeneralize are ____as defined by Aaron Beck.
Cognitive errors or distortions.
Prefrontal lobotomy, a failed ____ procedure, involved severing the nerve connections between the prefrontal lobes and the thalamus.
Cognitive therapy provides____that reduce the risk of recurrence of depression when treatment ends.
Psychodynamic therapies assume that psychological disorders originate in
early childhood experiences and inner conflicts.
Client-centered therapy focuses on how childhood experiences create ____ which adversely affect the client's current functioning.
denial of self
In client-centered therapy, the therapist tries to set aside his or her own values and experiences and view the world through the client's
frame of reference.
When advertisers use extremely attractive models to demonstrate their products, they are relying, in part, on the power of ____ to change consumers' attitudes.
Matthew often hears his parents discussing the importance of making lots of money. Eventually, Matthew himself begins to value a high income. Matthew's attitude about money was acquired through ___.
Cognitive dissonance theory accounts for Festinger and Carlsmith's (1959) results by proposing that subjects paid ___.
20$ to lie had sufficient justification for their counter attitudinal behavior and experienced little dissonance.
Conformity occurs when people change their behavior
in response to real or imagined social pressure.
In Milgram's (1963) study of obedience, subjects
were ordered to deliver painful electric shocks to a stranger.
Why are stereotypes resistant to change?
Consigning deviants to a subtype that is viewed as unrepresentative of the group allows people to preserve their stereotype of the group
Marsha believes that all news reporters are cynical, doubting individuals who would sell their souls for an exclusive story. In this case, Marsha's beliefs about the traits and behaviors of news reporters are one example of
If you tend to overemphasize internal characteristics in explaining the behavior of others, you are evidencing the:
fundamental attribution error.
According to the notion of defensive attribution, we tend to explain the setbacks that befall other people in terms of
Attributing one's successes to dispositional factors and one's failures to situational factors is referred to as
a self-serving bias.
Putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes is referred to as
when people estimate having encountered more confirmations of stereotypes then they've actually seen.
Fundamental Attribution Error:
Observer's tendency to use internal attributions when explaining other's behavior.
Tendency to blame victims so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way. (ie homeless ppl)
attribute successes to personal factors & attribute failure to situational factors (ie passing test)