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flowering vascular plants that produce a fruit containing one or more seeds; monocots and dicots

angiosperm

vascular tissue that produces xylem and phloem cells as a plant grows

cambium

chemical compound made out of sugar; forms tangled fibers in the cell walls of many plants and provides structure and support

cellulose

waxy, protective layer that covers the stems, leaves, and flowers of many plants and helps prevent water loss

cuticle

angiosperm with two cotyledons inside its seed, flower parts in multiples of four or five, and vascular bundles in rings

dicot

pairs of cells that surround stomata and control their opening and closing

guard cell

vascular plants that do not flower, generally have needlelike or scalelike leaves, and produce seeds that are not protected by fruit; conifers, cycads, ginkgoes, and gnetophytes

gymnosperm

angiosperm with one cotyledon inside its seed, flower parts arranged in multiples of three, and vascular tissues in bundles scattered throughout the stem

monocot

plant that absorbs water and other substances directly through its cell walls instead of through tubelike structures

nonvascular plant

vascular tissue that forms tubes that transport dissolved sugar throughout a plant

phloem

first organisms to grow in new or disturbed areas; break down rock and build soil

pioneer species

threadlike structures that anchor nonvascular plants to the ground.

rhizoid

small openings in the surface of most plant leaves that allow carbon dioxide, water, and oxygen to enter and exit

stomata

plant with tubelike structures that move minerals, water, and other substances throughout the plant

vascular plant

vascular tissue that forms hollow vessels that transport substances, other than sugar, throughout a plant

xylem

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