Muscles of Face, Soft Palate, and Pharynx

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Orbicularis oris inferior and superior
Origin

Corner of lips

Orbicularis oris inferior and superior
Course

Laterally within lips

Orbicularis oris inferior and superior
Insertion

Opposite corner of lips

Orbicularis oris inferior and superior
Innervation

VII Facial Nerve

Orbicularis oris inferior and superior
Function

Constricts oral opening

Risorius
Origin

Posterior region of face
Along fascia of Masseter

Risorius
Course

Forward

Risorius
Insertion

Orbicularis oris at corners of mouth

Risorius
Innervation

VII Facial Nerve - Buccal branches

Risorius
Function

Retracts lips at the corners

Buccinator
Origin

Pterygomandibular ligament

Buccinator
Course

Forward

Buccinator
Insertion

Orbicularis oris at corners of mouth

Buccinator
Innervation

VII Facial Nerve - Buccal branches

Buccinator
Function

Moves food onto grinding surfaces of molars
Constricts oropharynx

Levator labii alaeque nasi superioris
Origin

Maxilla frontal process

Levator labii alaeque nasi superioris
Course

Vertically along lateral margin of nose

Levator labii alaeque nasi superioris
Insertion

Mid-lateral region of upper lip

Levator labii alaeque nasi superioris
Innervation

VII Facial Nerve - Buccal branches

Levator labii alaeque nasi superioris
Function

Elevates upper lip

Levator labii superioris
Origin

Maxilla infraorbital margin

Levator labii superioris
Course

Down & in to upper lip

Levator labii superioris
Insertion

Mid-lateral region of upper lip

Levator labii superioris
Innervation

VII Facial Nerve - Buccal branches

Levator labii superioris
Function

Elevates upper lip

Zygomatic minor
Origin

Zygomatic bone facial surface

Zygomatic minor
Course

Downward

Zygomatic minor
Insertion

Mid-lateral region of upper lip

Zygomatic minor
Innervation

VII Facial Nerve - Buccal branches

Zygomatic minor
Function

Elevates upper lip

Zygomatic major (zygomaticus)
Origin

Zygomatic bone lateral to zygomatic minor

Zygomatic major (zygomaticus)
Course

Obliquely down

Zygomatic major (zygomaticus)
Insertion

Corner of orbicularis oris

Zygomatic major (zygomaticus)
Innervation

VII Facial Nerve - Buccal branches

Zygomatic major (zygomaticus)
Function

Elevates & retracts angle of mouth

Depressor anguli oris (triangularis)
Origin

Mandible lateral margins on oblique line

Depressor anguli oris (triangularis)
Course

Fans up

Depressor anguli oris (triangularis)
Insertion

Orbicularis oris and upper lip at corner

Depressor anguli oris (triangularis)
Innervation

VII Facial Nerve - Mandibular marginal branch

Depressor anguli oris (triangularis)
Function

Depresses corners of mouth
Helps to compress upper lip against lower lip

Depressor labii inferioris
Origin

Mandible at oblique line

Depressor labii inferioris
Course

Up & in

Depressor labii inferioris
Insertion

Lower lip

Depressor labii inferioris
Innervation

VII Facial Nerve - Mandibular marginal branch

Depressor labii inferioris
Function

Dilates orifice by pulling lip down and out

Mentalis
Origin

Mandible region of incisive fossa

Mentalis
Course

Down

Mentalis
Insertion

Skin of the chin below

Mentalis
Innervation

VII Facial Nerve - Mandibular marginal branch

Mentalis
Function

Elevates and wrinkles chin
Pulls lower lip out

Platysma
Origin

Fascia overlaying pectoralis major and deltoid

Platysma
Course

Up

Platysma
Insertion

Corner of mouth
Region below symphysis mente
Mandible lower margin
Skin near the masseter

Platysma
Innervation

VII Facial Nerve - Cervical branch

Platysma
Function

Depresses mandible

Facial Muscles

Orbicularis oris inferior and superior
Risorius
Buccinator
Levator labii alaeque nasi superioris
Levator labii superioris
Zygomatic minor
Zygomatic major (zygomaticus)
Depressor anguli oris (triangularis)
Depressor labii inferioris
Mentalis
Platysma

Intrinsic & Extrinsic Tongue Muscles

Superior longitudinal
Inferior longitudinal
Transverse muscle of tongue
Vertical muscle of tongue

Genioglossus
Hyoglossus
Styloglossus

---> Median fibrous septum

Mandibular Elevators & Depressors

Masseter
Temporalis
Medial pterygoid (internal pterygoid)

Lateral pterygoid (external pterygoid)

Digastricus, anterior belly
Digastricus, posterior belly
Mylohyoid
Geniohyoid

---> pterygoid fossa vs pterygoid fovea

Muscles of the Velum

Levator veli palatini (levator palati)
Musculus uvulae
Tensor veli palatini (tensor veli palati)
Palatoglossus
Palatopharyngeus

---> palatal aponeurosis

Muscles of Pharynx

Superior pharyngeal constrictor
Middle pharyngeal constrictor
Inferior pharyngeal constrictor: cricopharyngeus muscle
Inferior pharyngeal constrictor: thyropharyngeus muscle

Superior longitudinal
Origin

Fibrous submucous layer near the Epiglottis
Hyoid
Median fibrous septum

Superior longitudinal
Course

Fans forward and outward

Superior longitudinal
Insertion

Tongue apex and lateral margins

Superior longitudinal
Innervation

XII Hypoglossal Nerve

Superior longitudinal
Function

Elevates tip of tongue
Assists in retraction, Deviates tip of tongue

Inferior longitudinal
Origin

Tongue root
Hyoid corpus

Inferior longitudinal
Course

Forward

Inferior longitudinal
Insertion

Tongue apex

Inferior longitudinal
Innervation

XII Hypoglossal Nerve

Inferior longitudinal
Function

Pulls tip of tongue downward
Assists in retraction, deviates tongue

Transverse muscle of tongue
Origin

Median fibrous septum

Transverse muscle of tongue
Course

Laterally

Transverse muscle of tongue
Insertion

Side of tongue in submucous tissue

Transverse muscle of tongue
Innervation

XII Hypoglossal Nerve

Transverse muscle of tongue
Function

Narrows tongue

Vertical muscle of tongue
Origin

Base of tongue

Vertical muscle of tongue
Course

Vertically

Vertical muscle of tongue
Insertion

Membranous cover

Vertical muscle of tongue
Innervation

XII Hypoglossal Nerve

Vertical muscle of tongue
Function

Pulls tongue down into floor of mouth

Genioglossus
Origin

Mental spines, inner surface of mandible (at symphysis)

Genioglossus
Course

Fans up, back, & down

Genioglossus
Insertion

Tongue tip and dorsum
Hyoid corpus

Genioglossus
Innervation

XII Hypoglossal Nerve

Genioglossus
Function

Anterior Fibers: Retract tongue
Posterior Fibers: Protrude tongue
Together: Depress tongue

Hyoglossus
Origin

Hyoid, greater cornu & corpus

Hyoglossus
Course

Upward

Hyoglossus
Insertion

Sides of tongue between styloglossus & inferior longitudinal muscles

Hyoglossus
Innervation

XII Hypoglossal Nerve

Hyoglossus
Function

Pulls sides of tongue down

Styloglossus
Origin

Styloid process anterolateral margin

Styloglossus
Course

Forward & down

Styloglossus
Insertion

Inferior sides of tongue

Styloglossus
Innervation

XII Hypoglossal Nerve

Styloglossus
Function

Draws tongue back & up

Masseter
Origin

Zygomatic arch

Masseter
Course

Down

Masseter
Insertion

Mandible ramus & coronoid process

Masseter
Innervation

V Trigeminal Nerve, mandibular branch

Masseter
Function

Elevates mandible

Temporalis
Origin

Temporal fossa of temporal & parietal bones

Temporalis
Course

Converging downward & forward, thru zygomatic arch

Temporalis
Insertion

Mandible ramus & coronoid process

Temporalis
Innervation

V Trigeminal Nerve, temporal branches

Temporalis
Function

Elevates mandible
Draws mandible back if protruded

Medial pterygoid (internal pterygoid)
Origin

Medial pterygoid plate & fossa

Medial pterygoid (internal pterygoid)
Course

Down & back

Medial pterygoid (internal pterygoid)
Insertion

Mandibular ramus

Medial pterygoid (internal pterygoid)
Innervation

V Trigeminal Nerve, mandibular branch

Medial pterygoid (internal pterygoid)
Function

Elevates mandible
Important in grinding action of teeth

Lateral pterygoid (external pterygoid)
Origin

Lateral pterygoid plate
Greater wing of sphenoid

Lateral pterygoid (external pterygoid)
Course

Back

Lateral pterygoid (external pterygoid)
Insertion

Mandible pterygoid fovea

Lateral pterygoid (external pterygoid)
Innervation

V Trigeminal Nerve, mandibular branch

Lateral pterygoid (external pterygoid)
Function

Protrudes mandible
Important in grinding action of teeth

Digastricus, anterior belly
Origin

Mandible inner surface near symphysis at digastricus fossa

Digastricus, anterior belly
Course

Medially & down

Digastricus, anterior belly
Insertion

Intermediate tendon to juncture of hyoid corpus & greater cornu

Digastricus, anterior belly
Innervation

V Trigeminal Nerve, mandibular branch

Digastricus, anterior belly
Function

Pulls hyoid forward
With posterior: Depresses mandible

Digastricus, posterior belly
Origin

Mastoid process of temporal bone

Digastricus, posterior belly
Course

Medially & down

Digastricus, posterior belly
Insertion

Intermediate tendon to juncture of hyoid corpus & greater cornu

Digastricus, posterior belly
Innervation

VII Facial Nerve, digastric branch

Digastricus, posterior belly
Function

Pulls hyoid back
With Anterior: Depresses mandible

Mylohyoid
Origin

Mylohyoid line, inner mandible

Mylohyoid
Course

Back & down

Mylohyoid
Insertion

Median fibrous raphe inferior to hyoid

Mylohyoid
Innervation

V Trigeminal Nerve, mandibular branch

Mylohyoid
Function

Depresses mandible

Geniohyoid
Origin

Mental spines, inner surface of mandible

Geniohyoid
Course

Medially

Geniohyoid
Insertion

Hyoid corpus

Geniohyoid
Innervation

XII Hypoglossal Nerve
C1 Spinal Nerve

Geniohyoid
Function

Depresses mandible

Levator veli palatini (levator palati)
Origin

Petrous portion apex, temporal bone
Eustachian tube cartilage, medial wall

Levator veli palatini (levator palati)
Course

Down & forward

Levator veli palatini (levator palati)
Insertion

Soft palate palatal aponeurosis, lateral to musculus uvulae

Levator veli palatini (levator palati)
Innervation

X Vagus
XI Accessory

Levator veli palatini (levator palati)
Function

Elevates & retracts posterior velum

Musculus uvulae
Origin

Posterior nasal spines of palatine bones
Palatal aponeurosis

Musculus uvulae
Course

Runs length of soft palate

Musculus uvulae
Insertion

Velum, mucous membrane cover

Musculus uvulae
Innervation

X Vagus
XI Accessory

Musculus uvulae
Function

Shortens soft palate

Tensor veli palatini (tensor veli palati)
Origin

Scaphoid fossa of sphenoid
Sphenoid spine
Eustachian tube lateral wall

Tensor veli palatini (tensor veli palati)
Course

Down
Terminates in tendon that passes around pterygoid hamulus
Then is directed medially

Tensor veli palatini (tensor veli palati)
Insertion

Palatal aponeurosis

Tensor veli palatini (tensor veli palati)
Innervation

V Trigeminal Nerve, mandibular branch

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