Path II- Integumentary Glossary Terms

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100 terms

Acantholysis

loss of cohesion between keratinocytes caused by the breakdown of intercellular bridges.

Acanthosis

thickening of the spinous cell layer (stratum spinosum) of the epidermis.

Acral

distal parts of the extremities

Alopecia

hair loss

Anagen

phase of hair cycle in which hair synthesis takes place.

Anaplasia

lack of cellular differentiation and organization, a feature of neoplastic cells.

Angioedema

vascular reaction involving the deep dermis or subcutis and consisting of edema manifested as giant wheals and caused by dilation and increased permeability of capillaries (deeper version of urticaria).

Apoptosis

programmed cell death.

Atrophy

reduction in size of a cell, tissue, organ, or part.

Ballooning degeneration

marked intracellular fluid accumulation in the cells of the epidermis.

Blister (vesicle or bulla)

localized collection of fluid usually in or beneath the epidermis. Bulla: large blister (≥1.0 cm).

Carcinoma in situ

a malignant neoplasm of epithelial origin that has not invaded through the basement membrane.

Catagen

transition phase of the hair cycle between growth and resting phases.

Cellulitis

an acute bacterial infection of the dermis and subcutis that spreads to surrounding soft tissues and is characterized by erythema, warmth, swelling, and pain. The source of the infection is most often a penetrating wound in the area of infection. Cellulitis can also cause fever and enlarged lymph nodes.

Comedo (pl., comedones)

plug of follicular stratum corneum and dried sebum in a hair follicle that leads to follicular distention.

Cornification

production of stratum corneum by terminal epidermal differentiation.

Crust

material formed by drying of exudate or secretion on the skin surface.

Cytokines

small molecular weight protein molecules (generally <30 kD) that are mediators of inflammation and growth.

Dematiaceous

naturally pigmented black or brown mycelium or conidium.

Dermatitis

inflammation of the skin

Dermatophytosis

infection of the stratum corneum of the epidermis, hair, or claws with fungi of the genera Microsporum, Epidermophyton, or Trichophyton.

Dermatosis

noninflammatory lesion of the skin.

Detritus

dandruff

Dyskeratosis

abnormal, premature, or imperfect keratinization.

Dysplasia

abnormal development;; term may be used in association with a congenital or inherited developmental anomaly or in association with an abnormality in maturation of cells within a tissue.

Effluvium

shedding of hair

Elastosis

degeneration of dermal connective tissue leading to accumulation of elastotic fibers;; sometimes seen with solar dermatitis

Epidermal collarette

peripheral expanding ring of scale

Epidermitis

inflammation of the epidermis

Epidermolysis

separation of the epidermis from the dermis

Epidermotropic/Epitheliotropic

having a predilection to enter the epidermis or other epithelial structures as seen with cutaneous T cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides).

Erosion

loss of all or part of the thickness of the epidermis.

Eruption

rapid development of skin lesion associated with redness.

Erythema

redness of skin caused by congestion of capillaries

Excoriation

superficial loss of epidermal layers caused by physical trauma (scratching).

Exfoliation

shedding of layers or scales.

Exogen

the stage of the hair cycle where old hairs are shed.

Exudate

fluid, cells, or debris from blood vessels deposited in or on other tissues

Fissure

cleft or groove

Folliculitis

inflammation of a hair follicle.

Furuncle

circumscribed, painful nodule (accumulation of pus) in the dermis secondary to follicular rupture

Furunculosis

rupture of follicles usually caused by inflammation, distention, and/or trauma leading to entry of follicular contents into the dermis.

Genodermatosis

a genetically determined disorder of the skin

Glabrous

smooth skin, hairless skin

Hamartoma

a localized, tumor-like malformation of mature cells and tissues that includes normal components of the organ in which the hamartoma arises but that is disorganized, present in excess, and sometimes larger than normal. Usually, one tissue element predominates (e.g., follicular hamartoma, vascular hamartoma). A hamartoma is not a true neoplasm because it involves the proliferation of more than one cell type and often includes the development of complex structures such as arteries or follicles

Hydropic degeneration

intracellular fluid accumulation in cells of the basal epidermis

Hyperkeratosis

histologic term for thickening of stratum corneum.

Hyperplasia

increase in the number of normal cells.

Hypoplasia

incomplete development

Hypotrichosis

less hair than normal

Ichthyosis

congenital skin disorder in which the skin is thickened by scales (hyperkeratosis) that can crack into plates resembling fish scales

Impetigo

bacterial dermatitis characterized by pustules

Indolent

slow growing, a term applied to persistent ulcers on the lips of cats, and sometimes incorrectly called "rodent ulcer," a term from the human literature used to refer to ulcerated basal cell carcinoma

Indurated

Hardening of the skin as a result of inflammation or fibrosis

Interface

inflammation arranged in a layer close to and often obscuring the epidermal-dermal junction (interface), and with vacuolated (hydropic degeneration) and sometimes apoptotic basal cells;; the inflammation can be mild (cell poor) or extensive (cell rich)

Intertrigo

dermatitis that develops because of friction between apposing skin surfaces (e.g., adjacent folds)

Keratinocytes

the epidermal cells that synthesize keratin and comprise more than 90% of epidermal cells

Kerion

an intense focal folliculitis usually caused by a dermatophyte infection

Langerhans' cells

intraepidermal dendritic antigen-presenting cells

Lichenification

thickening of skin with accentuation of skin creases caused by marked acanthosis

Lichenoid

confusing term that generally refers to a dense zone of dermal inflammation parallel to the epidermis usually without basal cell injury

Lichenoid dermatosis

the conventional term for uncommon to rare, often idiopathic, single or grouped papules, plaques, or papillomatous foci covered by scale, and histologically composed of epidermal hyperplasia, lichenoid lymphoplasmacytic dermal inflammation, hyperkeratosis, and parakeratosis. The term dermatitis is probably better than dermatosis as inflammation is present in these lesions

Macule

flat, circumscribed lesion of altered skin color

Melanin

the dark granular pigment produced by melanocytes that is responsible for the brown coloration of hair, skin, and other tissues such as the iris and choroid of the eye

Melanophage

macrophage containing ingested melanin

Merkel cell

a neuroendocrine cell found in the stratum basale

Mucin

glycosaminoglycan (GAG), a normal component of the intercellular ground substance of the dermis, consists of protein bound to hyaluronic acid

Mycelium

a mass of hyphae

Mycetoma

a slowly progressive infection of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue, fascia, and sometimes underlying bone caused by traumatic implantation of actinomycetes (actinomycotic mycetoma) or fungi (eumycotic mycetoma)

Myxedema

nonpitting edema of the skin because of abnormal deposits of mucin in the dermis

Necrotizing fasciitis

an acute serious life-threatening subtype of cellulitis usually caused by streptococcal bacterial infection and toxin production, and located within the subcutaneous fat and fascial planes. The clinical lesions are painful, hot, and swollen areas with extensive exudation and necrosis. The condition can progress rapidly and result in systemic shock

Nevus

circumscribed malformation of the skin assumed to be of congenital or inherited origin, and consisting of any component of the skin. The term "hamartoma" is preferred to nevus to avoid confusion with the pigmented nevus (mole) that arises in the skin of humans

Nodule

a circumscribed, solid elevation of skin (≥1 cm).

Onychodystrophy

abnormal formation of the claw.

Onychomadesis

sloughing of claws

Panniculitis

inflammation of subcutaneous adipose tissue

Papule

circumscribed, solid elevation of skin (<1 cm)

Parakeratosis

retention of pyknotic nuclei in epidermal cells of the stratum corneum

Paronychia

inflammation of skin around the claws

Pautrier's microabscess

a localized intraepidermal collection of neoplastic lymphocytes characteristic of epitheliotropic lymphoma (mycosis fungoides)

Pemphigus

a group of cutaneous diseases associated with blistering

Phaeohyphomycosis

mycotic disease caused by pigmented fungi (dematiaceous fungi) of a variety of genera and species that do not form sclerotic bodies or granules

Pigmentary incontinence

melanin pigment within dermal macrophages or free in the dermis developing via injury to pigment containing basal layer cells

Plaque

a flat-topped, solid elevation in the skin that occupies a relatively large surface area in comparison with its height (≥1 cm).

Pruritus

itching

Pustule

small, circumscribed accumulation of pus within the epidermis or within a hair follicle

Pyoderma

pyogenic (pus-producing) bacterial infection of the skin

Rodent ulcer

a term used in human medicine to define an ulcerative basal cell carcinoma; sometimes used inappropriately in veterinary medicine to refer to an indolent ulcer affecting the lip of cats.

Scale

a thin, platelike accumulation of stratum corneum on the surface of skin

Seborrhea

nonspecific term for clinical signs of scaling, crusting, and greasiness. Primary seborrhea is a more specific term applied to inherited cornification disorders

Sebum

secretion of sebaceous glands

Spongiosis

intercellular edema, which, by widening of the intercellular space and stretching of the "intercellular bridges," creates a sponge-like appearance to the epidermis

Telogen

resting phase of the hair cycle

Ulcer

loss of epidermis and at least the superficial portion of dermis

Urticaria

usually transient vascular reaction in the upper dermis consisting of edema manifested clinically as wheals (hives);; a more superficial version of angioedema

Vesicle

small blister within the epidermis or at or below the dermal-epidermal interface (<1.0 cm)

Vibrissa

long, coarse hair located about the nose (sinus hair, tactile hair).

Vitiligo

acquired disorder characterized by circumscribed areas of depigmentation in the skin.

Wheal

smooth, circumscribed, slightly elevated area on skin caused by dermal edema

Yeast

unicellular budding fungus.

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