|morphology||the size, shape, and arrangement of cells|
|colony||Several individual organisms (especially of the same species) living together in close association.|
|size||measurment of the bacteria|
|color|| 1.gram+ purple gram stain|
2.gram- pink gramstain
3.the color of the bacteria
|coccus||arrangements: themain factors influncing arrangementsareits patternof division and wether or not the cells remain attached.|
|Bacillus||any of a genus (Bacillus) of rod-shaped gram-positive usually aerobic bacteria producing endospores and including many saprophytes and some parasites (as B. anthracis of anthrax); broadly : a straight rod-shaped bacterium|
|gram+|| stain purple. peptidoglycan (several layers)|
has: plasma membrane, peptidoglycan, techoic acid.
sensitive to penicillan
|gram-|| stain red or pink. peptidoglycan( single layer)|
has:plasma membrane, pptidoglycan, periplasmic space, outer membrane.
|germination||germination is the process in which a spore begins to grow vegetative cells, and sporeling hyphae.|
|pro: flagella (external)||The purpose of flagella (sing., flagellum) is motility. Flagella are long appendages which rotate by means of a "motor" located just under the cytoplasmic membrane. Bacteria may have one, a few, or many flagella in different positions on the cell.|
|pro: Pili (external)||These hollow, hairlike structures made of protein. A specialized pilus, the sex pilus, allows the transfer of plasmid DNA from one bacterial cell to another.|
|pro: fimbriae (external)||These hollow, hairlike structures made of protein allow bacteria to attach to other cells.|
|pro capsule (external)||This layer of polysaccharide (sometimes proteins) protects the bacterial cell and is often associated with pathogenic bacteria because it serves as a barrier against phagocytosis by white blood cells.|
|pro:cell wall (cell envelope)||Composed of peptidoglycan (polysaccharides + protein), the cell wall maintains the overall shape of a bacterial cell. The three primary shapes in bacteria are coccus (spherical), bacillus (rod-shaped) and spirillum (spiral). Mycoplasma are bacteria that have no cell wall and therefore have no definite shape.|
|pro: outer membrane (cell envelope)||not shown) This lipid bilayer is found in Gram negative bacteria and is the source of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in these bacteria. LPS is toxic and turns on the immune system of , but not in Gram positive bacteria.|
|pro:plasma membrane (cell envelope)||This is a lipid bilayer much like the cytoplasmic (plasma) membrane of other cells. There are numerous proteins moving within or upon this layer that are primarily responsible for transport of ions, nutrients and waste across the membrane.|
|Pro: ribosomes (internal structure)||Ribosomes give the cytoplasm of bacteria a granular appearance in electron micrographs. Though smaller than the ribosomes in eukaryotic cells, these inclusions have a similar function in translating the genetic message in messenger RNA into the production of peptide sequences (proteins).|
|pro: nucleaic acids ( internal sturctures)||allow organisms to transfer genetic information from one generation to the next. There are two types of nucleic acids: deoxyribonucleic acid, better known as DNA and ribonucleic acid, better known as RNA.|
|pro: nucleiod ( internal structure)||DNA in the bacterial cell is generally confined to this central region. Though it isn't bounded by a membrane, it is visibly distinct (by transmission microscopy) from the rest of the cell interior.|
|pro: inclusions ( internal structures)||Inclusions are aggregates of various compounds that are normally involved in storing energy reserves or building blocks for the cell.|
|pro: endospores (internal structure)||An endospore is a small, round, thick-walled structure that houses the bacteria's genetic materials. Endospores are very resistant and can protect a bacteria's genetic material from freezing, heating, and drying out for many years! |
Once an endospore lands in a more suitable environment, it will open up and the bacteria will begin to grow and multiply again.
|eu: nucleus||It is enclosed in a double membrane and communicates with the surrounding cytosol via numerous nuclear pores. Within the nucleus is the DNA responsible for providing the cell with its unique characteristics.|
|eu:Nucleolus||The nucleolus produces ribosomes, which move out of the nucleus and take positions on the rough endoplasmic reticulum where they are critical in protein synthesis.|
|eu:Cytosol||The cytosol is the "soup" within which all the other cell organelles reside and where most of the cellular metabolism occurs. Though mostly water, the cytosol is full of proteins that control cell metabolism including signal transduction pathways, glycolysis, intracellular receptors, and transcription factors.|
|eu: cytoplasm||This is a collective term for the cytosol plus the organelles suspended within the cytosol.|
|eu:Centriole||Each centriole is a ring of nine groups of fused microtubules. There are three microtubules in each group. Microtubules (and centrioles) are part of the cytoskeleton. In the complete animal cell centrosome, the two centrioles are arranged such that one is perpendicular to the other.|
|eu:Golgi apparatus||a membrane-bound structure with a single membrane. It is actually a stack of membrane-bound vesicles that are important in packaging macromolecules for transport elsewhere in the cell. The stack of larger vesicles is surrounded by numerous smaller vesicles containing those packaged macromolecules. The enzymatic or hormonal contents of lysosomes, peroxisomes and secretory vesicles are packaged in membrane-bound vesicles at the periphery of the Golgi apparatus.|
|eu:Lysosome||Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes necessary for intracellular digestion. They are common in animal cells, but rare in plant cells. Hydrolytic enzymes of plant cells are more often found in the vacuole.|
|eu:Cell Membrane||Every cell is enclosed in a membrane, a double layer of phospholipids (lipid bilayer). The exposed heads of the bilayer are "hydrophilic" (water loving), meaning that they are compatible with water both within the cytosol and outside of the cell. However, the hidden tails of the phosopholipids are "hydrophobic" (water fearing), so the cell membrane acts as a protective barrier to the uncontrolled flow of water. The membrane is made more complex by the presence of numerous proteins that are crucial to cell activity. These proteins include receptors for odors, tastes and hormones, as well as pores responsible for the controlled entry and exit of ions|
|eu:Mitochondria||Mitochondria provide the energy a cell needs to move, divide, produce secretory products, contract - in short, they are the power centers of the cell. ATP - the primary energy source for the cell.|
|eu:Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum||The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is so named because it appears smooth by electron microscopy. Smooth ER plays different functions depending on the specific cell type including lipid and steroid hormone synthesis, breakdown of lipid-soluble toxins in liver cells, and control of calcium release in muscle cell contraction.|
|eu: rough Endoplasmic reticulum||Rough endoplasmic reticulum appears "pebbled" by electron microscopy due to the presence of numerous ribosomes on its surface. Proteins synthesized on these ribosomes collect in the endoplasmic reticulum for transport throughout the cell.|
|eu:Ribosomes||Ribosomes are packets of RNA and protein that play a crucial role in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. They are the site of protein synthesis. Each ribosome comprises two parts, a large subunit and a small subunit. Messenger RNA from the cell nucleus is moved systematically along the ribosome where transfer RNA adds individual amino acid molecules to the lengthening protein chain.|
|eu:Peroxisomes||Peroxisomes are membrane-bound packets of oxidative enzymes. In plant cells, peroxisomes play a variety of roles including converting fatty acids to sugar and assisting chloroplasts in photorespiration. In animal cells, peroxisomes protect the cell from its own production of toxic hydrogen peroxide. As an example, white blood cells produce hydrogen peroxide to kill bacteria. The oxidative enzymes in peroxisomes break down the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.|
|eu: nuclear membrane|| membrane surrounding the nucleus that is covered with pores and controls nuclear traffic |
- Composed of two layers
- Numerous openings for nuclear traffic
|eu: cilia||shorter than flagella, (more hair like), thinner, and mare mumerous than flagella. used for cell movement.|
|eu: microvilli||microvilli have a core of microfilaments rather than microtubules and extremely limited movement ability; this is because movement is not really their purpose. Microvilli are found on cells that require lots of surface area to do their jobs, either because they are trying to absorb materials or secrete them.|
|cocci types||1. Diplococcus: a pair of cocci. Diplococci: two or more pair|
in a field of view (e.g. Neisseria gonorrhoeae).
2. Streptococcus (strepto: Greek twisted chain).
e.g.: Streptococcus pyogenes
Capital "S" for name of bacteria only not for arrangement.
3. Staphylococcus (Staphylo: Greek cluster of grapes).
E.g. Staphylococcus aureus
4. Tetrad: (four in a square)
e.g. Gaffkya tetragena
5. Sarcinae (eight cocci in a cube)
e.g. Micrococcus luteus.