CHAPTER 13

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PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDER

Deviant, distressful and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings and actions.

MEDICAL MODEL

The concept that diseases, in this case, psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated and, in most cased, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.

DSM IV TR

The American Psychiatric Association's DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS, Fourth Edition, updated as a 2000 "text revision" - a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.

ADHD

A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms; extreme inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity.

ANXIETY DISORDER

Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.

GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER

An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal. Many people with this type of anxiety disorder were maltreated and inhibited as children.

PANIC DISORDER

An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking or other frightening sensations.

PHOBIA

An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity or situation. Can be specific or social.

OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER

An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).

POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER

An anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience.

POST TRAUMATIC GROWTH

Positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises.

SOMATOFORM DISORDER

A psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause.

CONVERSION DISORDER

A rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found.

HYPOCHONDRIASIS

A somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of disease. This is a relatively common somatoform disorder.

DISASSOCIATIVE DISORDER

A group of disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts and feelings.

DISASSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER

Formerly called multiple personality disorder, this rare disassociative disorder is defined by when a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. There is some controversy over how and why this disorder occurs.

MOOD DISORDER

A group of psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes, such as MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER, MANIA AND BIPOLAR DISORDER.

MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER

A mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities. The "common cold" of psychological disorders. Women are more common than men to experience this type of depression.

MANIA

A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive wildly optimistic state.

BIPOLAR DISORDER

A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (Formerly called manic-depressive disorder.)

NOREPINEPHRINE AND SEROTONIN

Two neurotransmitter systems that play a role in mood disorder. Drugs that relieve depression tend to increase their supply by blocking either their reuptake or their chemical breakdown.

SCHIZOPHRENIA

A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions and actions.

PARANOIA

A psychological disorder characterized by delusions of persecution or grandeur, often evidenced in forms of schizophrenia

WORD SALAD

A jumble of incoherent speech as sometimes heard in schizophrenia

PSYCHOTIC DISORDER

A psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions. Schizophrenia is a good example of this type of disorder.

DELUSIONS

False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur that may accompany psychotic disorders. Often appears in schizophrenia.

HALLUCINATIONS

False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus. Can occur in schizophrenia.

FLAT EFFECT

Little sign of either positive or negative emotion, often characteristic of schizophrenics. In flat affect, the voice is a monotone and the face has no expression.

POSITIVE SYMPTOMS

Schizophrenic symptoms that involve behavioral excesses or peculiarities, such as hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, and wild flights of ideas.

NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS

Schizophrenic symptoms that involve behavioral deficits, such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of speech.

CHRONIC SCHIZOPHRENIA

Schizophrenia that is slow-developing. Exhibits the persistent and incapacitating negative symptoms of social withdrawal. Very hard to recover from this type of schizophrenia.

ACUTE SCHIZOPHRENIA

Schizophrenia that occurs when previously well-adjusted people develop schizophrenia. Also called REACTIVE schizophrenia. Usually follows a life stress and recovery is much more likely.

PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA

Schizophrenia marked with preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations, often with themes of persecution or grandiosity.

DISORGANIZED SCHIZOPHRENIA

Schizophrenia marked by disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion.

CATATONIC SCHIZOPHRENIA

Schizophrenia marked my immobility (or excessive, purposeless movement), extreme negativism, and/pr parrotlike repeating of another's speech or movements.

UNDIFFERENTIATED SCHIZOPHRENIA

Schizophrenia that has many and varied symptoms

RESIDUAL SCHIZOPHRENIA

Schizophrenia in withdrawal, after hallucinations and delusions have disappeared.

DOPAMINE OVERACTIVITY

Schizophrenic patients express higher levels of this neurotransmitter's D4 receptors in the brain. May intensify brain signals.

PERSONALITY DISORDER

Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.

ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER

A personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.

DECREASED FRONTAL LOBE ACTIVITY

Those with antisocial personality disorder exhibit this type of brain function in PET scans.

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