The shaft of a long bone
The diaphysis is composed of ___________?
a dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones (except at their extremities) and serving as an attachment for tendons and muscles
Secure the periosteum to the underlying bones
The ends of the long bones. It encloses and area filled with spongy bone
Glassy hyaline cartilage
Covers the external surface of the ends of the long bones. It provides a smooth, slippery surface that decreases friction at joint surfaces
in adults; remnant of epiphyseal plate
cartilaginous area at the ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place in the immature skeleton
The empty space inside the diaphysis it is filled with yellow bone marrow
Storage area for adipose (fat) tissue, i.e. energy`
Found in the epiphyses of long bones and forms blood cells
Formation and development of blood cells
Membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone
End of a bone closest to the main body
end of a bone furthest from the body
Function of bones
Support, protection, movement, storage of energy and minerals and blood cell formation
In periosteum, capable of differentiating into bone cells and dividing. Responds to traumas
Bone-forming cells that deposit a matrix of collagen that hardens into bones
Large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix, releasing calcium ions into the blood
mature bone cells
What happens to bones as we age?
They lose calcium and become brittle
The cartilage model will grow in length by continuous cell division of chondrocytes, which is accompanied by further secretion of extracellular matrix.
An ossification center appears in the fibrous connective tissue membrane. Bone matrix is secreted within the fibrous membrane. Woven bone and periosteum form. Bone collar of compact bone forms, and red marrow appears
Hard, dense bone tissue that is beneath the outer membrane of a bone
Layer of Bone tissue having many small spaces and found just inside the layer of compact bone
Causes calcium to be released from bone (bones release calcium)
Calcium gets deposited in bones (bones store calcium)
Minerals such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, Vitamins A,C and D. Hormones and weight bearing excersises
Functions of Bones
Support, Protection, Movement, Storage of energy and minerals, Hematopoiesis
The extracellular material of bone tissue, including ground substance and collagen fibers. Excludes the inorganic calcium salts.
Central canals surrounded by osteons; contain the blood vessels and nerves that serve the bone. They bring nurishment to the bone
the part of the skeleton that includes the skull and spinal column and sternum and ribs
the part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle and the upper and lower limbs
a natural opening or perforation through a bone or a membranous structure
Canal through which spinal cord passes
any membranous gap between the bones of the cranium in an infant or fetus
Accumulation of calcium salts in tissues.
bones that are longer than they are wide
cube-shaped bones having a spongy core, with limited movement
thin, flattened, and usually curved, two thin layers of compact sandwiching spongey bone (skull, ribs, sternum)
bones that have complex shapes with short, flat, notched or ridged surfaces; examples are vertebrae that form the spinal column and several bones in the skull
abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium
two coxal bones (aka hip bones)
the bony arch formed by the collarbones and shoulder blades in humans
congenital defect in the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching of spinal membranes or tissue
exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (hunchback)
Exaggerated anterior curvature of the lumbar or cervical spine (hollowback)
an abnormal lateral curve to the vertebral column
decrease angle at joint
Increasing the angle between bones
Movement away from the midline
Movement toward the median plane of the body
circular movement around an axis
Moving a part forward (shoulder or jaw)
Moving a part backward (shoulder or jaw)
Bending foot down (tiptoes)
Bending foot up
turning sole outward; weight on inner edge of the foot
Turning sole inward; weight on outer edge of the foot
rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face upward
rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face downward
lifting a body part superiorly
Lowering a body part
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