Anatomy, Chap. #5: The Skeletal System

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Diaphysis

The shaft of a long bone

The diaphysis is composed of ___________?

Compact bone

Periosteum

a dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones (except at their extremities) and serving as an attachment for tendons and muscles

Sharpey's fibers

Secure the periosteum to the underlying bones

Epiphyses

The ends of the long bones. It encloses and area filled with spongy bone

Glassy hyaline cartilage

Covers the external surface of the ends of the long bones. It provides a smooth, slippery surface that decreases friction at joint surfaces

Epiphyseal line

in adults; remnant of epiphyseal plate

Epiphyseal plate

cartilaginous area at the ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place in the immature skeleton

Medullary cavity

The empty space inside the diaphysis it is filled with yellow bone marrow

Yellow marrow

Storage area for adipose (fat) tissue, i.e. energy`

Red marrow

Found in the epiphyses of long bones and forms blood cells

hematopiesis

Formation and development of blood cells

Endosteum

Membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone

Proximal epiphysis

End of a bone closest to the main body

Distal epiphysis

end of a bone furthest from the body

Function of bones

Support, protection, movement, storage of energy and minerals and blood cell formation

Osteogenic cells

In periosteum, capable of differentiating into bone cells and dividing. Responds to traumas

Osteoblasts

Bone-forming cells that deposit a matrix of collagen that hardens into bones

Osteoclasts

Large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix, releasing calcium ions into the blood

Osteocytes

mature bone cells

What happens to bones as we age?

They lose calcium and become brittle

Endocondral ossification

The cartilage model will grow in length by continuous cell division of chondrocytes, which is accompanied by further secretion of extracellular matrix.

Intramembranous offification

An ossification center appears in the fibrous connective tissue membrane. Bone matrix is secreted within the fibrous membrane. Woven bone and periosteum form. Bone collar of compact bone forms, and red marrow appears

Compact bone

Hard, dense bone tissue that is beneath the outer membrane of a bone

Spongy bone

Layer of Bone tissue having many small spaces and found just inside the layer of compact bone

Parathyroid hormone

Causes calcium to be released from bone (bones release calcium)

Calcitonin

Calcium gets deposited in bones (bones store calcium)

Bone remodeling

Minerals such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, Vitamins A,C and D. Hormones and weight bearing excersises

Functions of Bones

Support, Protection, Movement, Storage of energy and minerals, Hematopoiesis

Bone matrix

The extracellular material of bone tissue, including ground substance and collagen fibers. Excludes the inorganic calcium salts.

haversian system

Central canals surrounded by osteons; contain the blood vessels and nerves that serve the bone. They bring nurishment to the bone

axial skeleton

the part of the skeleton that includes the skull and spinal column and sternum and ribs

Appendicular skeleton

the part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle and the upper and lower limbs

foramen

a natural opening or perforation through a bone or a membranous structure

vertebral foramen

Canal through which spinal cord passes

fontanel

any membranous gap between the bones of the cranium in an infant or fetus

Calcification

Accumulation of calcium salts in tissues.

Long bones

bones that are longer than they are wide

Short bones

cube-shaped bones having a spongy core, with limited movement

Flat bones

thin, flattened, and usually curved, two thin layers of compact sandwiching spongey bone (skull, ribs, sternum)

Irregular bones

bones that have complex shapes with short, flat, notched or ridged surfaces; examples are vertebrae that form the spinal column and several bones in the skull

osteoporosis

abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium

pelvic girdle

two coxal bones (aka hip bones)

Shoulder girdle

the bony arch formed by the collarbones and shoulder blades in humans

spina bifida

congenital defect in the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching of spinal membranes or tissue

kyphosis

exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (hunchback)

Lordosis

Exaggerated anterior curvature of the lumbar or cervical spine (hollowback)

scoliosis

an abnormal lateral curve to the vertebral column

flection

decrease angle at joint

extension

Increasing the angle between bones

abduction

Movement away from the midline

adduction

Movement toward the median plane of the body

rotation

circular movement around an axis

protraction

Moving a part forward (shoulder or jaw)

retraction

Moving a part backward (shoulder or jaw)

plantar flexation

Bending foot down (tiptoes)

Dorsal flexation

Bending foot up

Eversion

turning sole outward; weight on inner edge of the foot

Inversion

Turning sole inward; weight on outer edge of the foot

supination

rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face upward

pronation

rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face downward

elevation

lifting a body part superiorly

depression

Lowering a body part

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