Chemistry chapter 5

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Mendeleev.

The idea of arranging the elements in the periodic table according to their chemical and physical properties is attributed to

properties

Mendeleev left spaces in his periodic table and predicted the existence of three elements and their

atomic mass

Mendeleev noticed that properties of elements usually repeated at regular intervals when the elements were arranged in order of increasing

properties

Mendeleev did not always list elements in his periodic table in order of increasing atomic mass because he grouped together elements with similar

undiscovered elements

Mendeleev predicted that the spaces in his periodic table represented

moseley

the person whose work led to a periodic table based on increasing atomic number was

atomic number

Moseley's work led to the realization that elements with similar properties occurred at regular intervals when the elements were arranged in order of increasing

permits the properties of an element to be predicted before the element is discovered.

The periodic table

atomic number

Evidence gathered since Mendeleev's time indicates that a better arrangement than atomic mass for elements in the periodic table is an arrangement by

noble gases

The discovery of what elements added a new column to Mendeleev's periodic table?

the actinides

What are the radioactive elements with atomic numbers from 90 to 103 called?

the lanthanides

What are the elements with atomic numbers from 58 to 71 called?

noble gases

Argon, krypton, and xenon are

numbers

The periodic law states that the physical and chemical properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic

number of protons

The periodic law states that the properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers. What determines the position of each element in the periodic table?

the periodic law

The principle that states that the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers is

position of the periodic table

The periodic law allows some properties of an element to be predicted based on its

the physical and chemicla properties of the elements are hte functions of their atomic numbers.

The periodic law states that

properties

Elements in a group or column in the periodic table can be expected to have similar

4

The atomic number of lithium, the first element in Group 1, is 3. The atomic number of the second element in this group is

18

How much greater is the atomic number of the fourth element in groups 1, 2 and 18 than the preceding element?

54

Krypton, atomic number 36, is the fourth element in Group 18. What is the atomic number of xenon, the fifth element in Group 18?

88

Barium, atomic number 56, is the fifth element in Group 2. What is the atomic number of radium, the next element in Group 2?

18

For elements in groups 1, 2, and 18, the increase in atomic number for successive elements follows the pattern 8, 8, 18, ?, 32. What number completes the pattern?

halogens

Refer to the periodic table. To which group do fluorine and chlorine belong?

group.

A horizontal row of blocks in the periodic table is called a(n)

period 4

Refer to the figure above. Potassium and bromine belong to

period 3

The electron configuration of aluminum, atomic number 13, is [Ne] 3s2 3p1. Aluminum is in Period

s,p,f,d

Identify the sublevels in a period that contains 32 elements.

2

How many elements are in a period in which only the s and p sublevels are filled?

period 6

The electron configuration of cesium, atomic number 55, is [Xe] 6s1. In what period is cesium?

2

Because the first energy level contains only the 1s sublevel, the number of elements in this period is

a

In Period 3 there are 8 elements. What sublevel(s) is (are) being filled?

a

Period 4 contains 18 elements. How many of these elements have electrons in the d sublevel?

electron configuration

the period of an element can be determined from its

period 4

Calcium, atomic number 20, has the electron configuration [Ar] 4s2. In what period is calcium?

...

In the elements Sc, Ti, V, Cr, the s sublevel of the highest occupied energy level

metals

Elements to the right side of the periodic table (p-block elements) have properties most associated with

a

Neutral atoms with an s2p6 electron configuration in the highest energy level belong to which block of the periodic table?

a

Elements in which the d-sublevel is being filled have the properties of

a

The group of 14 f block elements in the sixth period is the

a

Within the p-block elements, the elements at the top of the table, compared with those at the bottom,

a

The electron configurations of the noble gases from neon to radon in the periodic table make these elements part of the

a

Hydrogen is placed separately from other elements in the periodic table because it

a

To which block do the actinide elements belong?

a

The elements whose electron configurations end with s2 p5 in the highest occupied energy level belong to Group

a

For groups 13 through 18, the total number of electrons in the highest occupied level equals the group number

a

Strontium's highest occupied energy level is 5s2. To what group does strontium belong?

a

If n stands for the highest occupied energy level, the outer configuration for all Group 1 elements is

a

Titanium, atomic number 22, has the configuration [Ar] 3d2 4s2. To what group does titanium belong?

a

Nitrogen's electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p3. To what group does nitrogen belong?

a

The electron configuration of an element is [Kr] 4d6 5s1. To what group does this element belong?

a

Bromine, atomic number 35, belongs to Group 17. How many electrons does bromine have in its outermost energy level?

a

Magnesium, atomic number 12, has the electron configuration [Ne] 3s2. To what group does magnesium belong?

a

In nature, the alkali metals occur as

a

The elements in Group 1 are also known as the

a

Which block in the periodic table contains the alkali metals?

a

The most reactive group of the nonmetals is the

a

The group of soft, silvery, reactive metals, all of which have one electron in an s orbital, is known as the

a

The first member of the noble gas family, whose highest energy level consists of an octet of electrons, is

a

The most characteristic property of the noble gases is that they

a

Compared to the alkali metals, the alkaline-earth metals

a

When determining the size of an atom by measuring the distance between bonded, identical, adjacent nuclei, the radius of an atom is

a

When an electron is added to a neutral atom, a certain amount of energy is

a

Which represents a neutral atom acquiring an electron in a process where energy is released?

a

The energy required to remove an electron from an atom is the atom's

a

A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons from another atom in the compound is called

a

One-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together is called the

a

What is removed when the ionization energy is supplied to an atom of an element?

a

When an electron is acquired by a neutral atom, the energy change is called

a

The element that has the greatest electronegativity is

a

A positive ion is known as a(n)

a

A negative ion is known as a(n)

a

In a row in the periodic table, as the atomic number increases, the atomic radius generally

a

Within a group of elements, as the atomic number increases, the atomic radius

a

In the alkaline-earth group, atoms with the smallest radii

a

As the atomic number of the metals of Group 1 increases, the ionic radius

a

Across a period in the periodic table, atomic radii

a

The ionization energies for removing successive electrons from sodium are 496 kJ/mol, 4562 kJ/mol, 6912 kJ/mol, and 9544 kJ/mol. The great jump in ionization energy after the first electron is removed indicates that

a

Which is the best reason that the atomic radius generally increases with atomic number in each group of elements?

a

The ionization energies required to remove successive electrons from one mole of calcium atoms are 590 kJ/mol, 1145 kJ/mol, 4912 kJ/mol, and 6474 kJ/mol. The most common ion of calcium is probably

a

For each successive electron removed from an atom, the ionization energy

a

As you move down Group 14 in the periodic table from carbon through lead, atomic radii

a

As you move left to right in Period 4 from gallium through bromine, atomic radii

a

Hoe does the energy required to remove an electron from an atom changer as you move left to right in Period 4 from potassium through iron?

a

The force of attraction by Group 1 metals for their valence electrons is

a

The electrons available to be lost, gained, or shared when atoms form compounds are called

a

Valence electrons are those s and p electrons

a

The number of valence electrons in Group 1 elements is

a

In Group 2 elements, the valence electrons are in sublevel

a

The number of valence electrons in Group 17 elements is

a

For groups 13 through 18, the number of valence electrons is equal to the group number

a

In groups 13 through 18, valence electrons may be in sublevels

a

Across a period, ionization energies of d-block elements generally

a

the first electrons to be removed when d-block elements form ions are the

a

Which groups in the main group have lower electronegativity than d-block elements?

a

Among the d-block elements, as atomic radii decrease, electronegativity values

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