A foreign invader that may cause disease
Anatomically, lymph vessels resemble what blood vessel?
lymphatic vessels, lymph, lymphoid organs, and lymphocytes
The major components of the lymphoid system
T cells, B cells, and NK cells
The three classes of lymphocytes found in the blood
helper T cells and suppressor T cells
Lymphocytes that assist in the regulation and coordination of the immune response
Cytotoxic T cells are the primary providers of what immunity?
physical barriers, phagocytic cells,
immunological surveillance, fever,
interferons, complements, and inflammation
The body's nonspecific defenses that are present at birth
NK (natural killer) cells sensitive to the presence of abnormal cell membranes are primarily
involved in what?
Circulating proteins that reset the thermostat in the hypothalamus, causing a rise in body
specificity, versatility, memory, and tolerance
The four general properties of specific defenses
redness, swelling, heat, and pain
Major events associated with inflammation
direct attack by T cells and circulating antibodies
The two major ways the body "carries out" the immune response
The first line of cellular defense against pathogens
Immunity resulting from natural exposure to an antigen in the environment
Immunity that results from the transfer of antibodies to an individual from some other source
induced active immunity
The basic principle behind vaccination to prevent disease
humoral responses; antigens
B cells are involved with ________ and create a chemical attack on ________.
The cells responsible for the production of circulating antibodies
The cells responsible for humoral immunity
T cells are responsible for what immunity?
In appropriate or excessive immune responses to antigens
an autoimmune disease
When an immune response mistakenly targets normal body cells and tissues
When the immune system fails to develop normally or the immune response is blocked in some way
provide protection against threats on an individual basis
Compared with nonspecific defenses, specific defenses
central nervous system
Lymphatic vessels are found in all portions of the body except what areas?
helper T cells
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes the disease known as AIDS selectively
infects what immune cells?
Red blood cells that are damaged or defective are removed from the circulation by what organ?
subsequent infections that involve the same antigen
Memory B cells respond to what?
aids in temporary repair at an injury site, slows the spread of pathogens, facilitates permanent repair
Why is inflammation important?