Chapter 9

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military historian who emphasized the need for a strong navy

Alfred T. Mahan

policy by which strong nations extend control over weaker territories

imperialism

naval commodore who sailed into Tokyo Bay, Japan, in 1853

Matthew Perry

last monarch of Hawaii

Queen Liliuokalani

historian who said that the frontier had been an outlet for ambitious Americans

Frederick J. Turner

economy in which an imperial country removed raw materials from its colonies

extractive economy

An economy that is based on mining or producting raw materials to be used in foreign industries is called....

an extractive economy.

The United States wanted overseas territories because the territories had...

customers who buy U.S. products.

What new relationship with Hawaii did Congress approve in 1898?

Social Darwinism.

___________ contributed to increased imperialism because imperialists believed strength would allow them to influence other nations.

Militarism

Frederick J. Turner said, "The closing of the frontier encouraged American imperialism because the rising population needed room to _______."

expand

Within a year of Commodore Perry's arrival in Tokyo Bay, Perry negotiated a treaty that opened _____ to the U.S. in 1853.

trade

Journalists called the __________________ "sewards folly" because they wondered why the U.S. would purchase a vast tundra of snow and ice far from our continental borders.

Alaska Purchase

Social ___________ is the belief held by some in the late 19th century that certain nations and races were superior to others and therefore destined to rule over them.

Darwinism

In 1916 congress passed the ___________ which promised that the Phillipines would ultimately gain its independence; that happened in 1946 when the islands were liberated from Japanese occupation during WWII.

Jones Act

At the beginning of the 20th century, the U.S. had become accustomed to ______________________.

military involvement overseas

_______ was annexed in 1898 during the Spanish-American War.

Hawaii

_______ lead an attack in Manilla Bay during the Spanish-American War because Manilla Bay was ruled by the Spanish and their ships were in that Bay.

Dewey

Spain gave up full control of the Philippines when the U.S. paid $20 million as set out in the Treaty of ______.

Paris

When Filipinos rebelled against U.S. rule the U.S. found itself using some of the same tactics that the Spanish had used in ______.

Cuba

Emilion Aguinaldo used __________ warfare as a nationalist insurgent in the Philippines, fighting seperately against both Spain and the U.S.

Guerilla

After the Spanish-American War, Cubans and _____________ were partially restricted by the U.S.

Puerto Ricans

The ______________________ gave the U.S. the right to preserve order has needed in Cuba, bringing Cuba within the U.S. sphere.

Platt Amendment

The 1898 Treaty of Paris dealt with territory or territories?

Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines

The Teller Amendment stated that the United States...

could not annex Cuba.

Emilio Aguinaldo was a....

Filipino freedom fighter.

Which presidential candidate ran on an anti-imperialist platform?

William Jennings Bryan

cuban patriot who launched a war for independence from Spain in 1895.

Jose Marti

a rival newspaper publisher who heightened the public's dislike of the Spanish government

William Randolph Hearst

Pulitzers' and Hearsts' publications that feautured a popular comic-strip character called the Yellow Kid

Yellow Press

aggressive nationalism

Jingoism

navy commodore who steamed his squadron of vessels into Manila Bay, in the Spanish-held Philippines, on May 1, 1898

George Dewey

led the Filipino nationalists and defeated the Spanish Army

Emilio Aguinaldo

rugged westerners and upper-class easterners who relished what Roosevelt called the "strenuous life."

Rough Riders

officially ended the war, signed by Spain and the U.S. in December 1898

Treaty of Paris

The Boxer Rebellion was a revolt by

members of a secret society.

A weaker or smaller country is said to be in a more powerful country's sphere of influence when it grants the larger country

trade privelages and other benfefits

Guerilla warfare infolves irregular tactics such as

surprise raids and hit-and-run attack.

U.S. Secretary of State John Hay was responsible for explaining to the European countries

the Open Door Policy.

The Great White Fleet was a group of battleships designed

to demonstrate to the world U.S. navy power.

When Filipinos organized an insurrection or rebellion against U.S. rules, the United States found itself

using tactics like Spain had done in Cuba.

What did Governor Taft do to help restore order in the Philippines?

censored the press.

What liberated the Philippines from Japanese occupation?

the Jones Act

What policy was designed to provide access to trade in China?

Open Door

Who won the Nobel Peace Prize for helping to negotiate an end to the Russo-Japanese War?

Theodore Roosevelt

Britain, France, Germany, and Russia all had spheres of influence in _______.

China

Unlike Britain, France, and Russia, the U.S. wanted to keep trade in china _____.

open

Governor Taft later became ________ of the U.S.

President

rebellion

Insurrection

form of non-traditional warfare generally involving hit-and-run attacks by small bands of fighters.

Guerilla Warfare

future U.S. President, became governor of the Philippines in 1901.

William Howard Taft

a region dominated and controlled by an outside power.

sphere of influence

U.S. secretary of state, issued the first series of notes to foreign diplomats in 1899.

John Hay

violence started by members of a secret society in China, which prompted the governments of Europe and America to send troops to squash the rebellion.

Boxer Rebellion

American statement that the government did not want colonies in China, but favored free trade there.

Open Door Policy

a war between Japan and Russia in 1904 over the pressence of Russian troops in Manchuria.

Russo-Japanese War

pact between the U.S. and Japan to end segregation of Asian children in san francisco public schools. In return, Japan agreed to limit the immigration of its citizens to the U.S.

"Gentlemen's Agreement"

battleships sent by Roosevelt in 1907 on a "good will cruise" around the world

Great White Fleet

The ________________ prevented Cuba from signing a treaty with any other country without the approval of the United States.

Platt Amendment

General John J. Pershing chased the Mexican rebel leader ____________________________.

Francisco "Pancho" Villa

President Taft's _________________ meant supporting American investments in foreign countries.

"dollar diplomacy"

The _________________ determined the form of government in Puerto Rico.

Foraker Act

The _____________________ asserted that the United States should act as Latin America's police power, intervening to restore order when necessary.

Roosevelt Corollary

Roosevelt's ________________________ depended on a strong military to achieve U.S. goals.

"big stick" diplomacy

Wilson's statement that the U.S. would not use force to assert influence in the world, but would instead work to promote human rights.

"moral diplomacy"

human-made waterway linking the Atlanta to the Pacific across the Isthmus of Panama.

Panama Canal

President Roosevelt and Wilson resorted frequently to the use of U.S. troops in ______________.

Latin America

After the Spanish-American War, Cubans and Puerto Ricans...

had their rights restricted.

How did the United States get access to the Canal Zone in Panama?

backed Panama rebels

Favoring honorable diplomacy but still resorting to military intervention upon occasion would be an example of...

"moral diplomacy"

Who ran Mexico for decades as a dictator?

Porfirio Diaz

Under ______ diplomacy American imperialism and conquest decreased.

moral

President Roosevelt sent troops to support Panamanian rebels in the fight against Columbia so that the U.S. could get the rights to build a canal in Panama at a ___________.

lower price

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