## M2 - Force & Newton's Laws

##### Created by:

gmallen  on November 18, 2010

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# M2 - Force & Newton's Laws

 forcea push or a pull
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#### Definitions

force a push or a pull
net force the combination of all the forces acting on an object
balanced forces two or more forces acting on an object that cancel each other out to give a net force of zero, and so do not change the object's velocity
unbalanced forces two or more forces acting on an object that do not cancel each other out, so the object's velocity changes
Newton's first law If the net force on an object is zero, an object at rest stays at rest, while a moving object keeps moving in a straight line at a constant speed.
friction a force that opposes motion
Newton's second law The acceleration of an object equals the net force divided by the mass, and is in the same direction as the net force. ( Expressed as A=F/m or F=ma)
weight the size of the gravitational force exerted on an object, Weight(N) =mass(kg) x acceleration due to gravity(m/s2)
center of mass the point in an object that moves as if all the object's mass were concentrated at that point
Newton's third law Forces always act in pairs that are equal in size, but opposite in direction.
static friction a force that prevents an object from moving, caused by attraction between the atoms on the two surfaces that are in contact
sliding friction a force that opposes motion when one solid surface slides over another, caused by microscopic roughness of the two surfaces
rolling friction a force that opposes the motion that occurs when a round object rolls over a surface
gravity a force of attraction between all objects that depends on their masses and the distance between them
air resistance a force that opposes the motion of objects that move through the air
lubricant a substance that reduces friction by making surfaces smooth or slippery
acceleration the rate at which velocity changes
mass the amount of matter in an object, SI unit is kilogram (kg)
velocity the speed and direction of an object
centripetal force a force that causes an object to move in a circular path
fluid friction a force that opposes motion when an object moves through a fluid (gas or liquid)
normal force the force at right angles to a surface that is supporting an object.
terminal velocity the maximum velocity reached by a falling object when the force of gravity is balanced by the force of air resistance pushing against the object. The object stops accelerating, and continues at constant speed.

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