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Ch 16-19

Californios

hispanic residents of Texas, excluded, lost land

Chief Joseph

leader of Nez perce, tribe flee on way to reservation, surrendered, moved around after

Chinese Exclusion Act

(1882) Denied Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate. threatened by competition.

Chisholm trail

Major cattle route from San Antonio, Texas, through Oklahoma to Kansas.

"Concentration" Policy

1851, divided the tribes so easier to control; forced the tribes to scattered. whites could have the most desirable land

coolies

workers from China on US railroads (central pacific) and gold rush, indentured servant

dawes severalty act

(1887) Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm /assimilate. uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes

frederick jackson turner

"The Significance of the Frontier in American History": American needed a frontier. less opportunity

frederic remington

painted romantic west, natural cowboy

genizaros

Indians without tribes. The were at the bottom level of the Spanish caste system.

George A. Custer

Discovered gold in Black Hills of South Dakota. Cavalry destroy by the Sioux at Little Big Horn.

geronimo

A chief of the Apaches. resist encroachments in the Southwest for fifteen years. captured in 1886.

homestead act

1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.

little bighorn

(1876) Battle during which the Sioux Tribe defeated the U.S. Army forces led by George A. Custer. Montana

long drive

Driving cattle long distances to a railroad depot for fast transport and great profit.

mark twain

gilded age. romantic view of west. huckleberry finn

mestizos

A person of mixed Native American and European ancestory

plains indians

tribes targeted by the U.S. for reservation habitation to encourage farming.

rocky mountain school

artistic school. Type of art was born here that romanticized the ruggedness of the West.

turner thesis

1893 theory of Federick Jackson Turner that claimed that the frontier had played a key role in forming the American character. "safety valve"

wounded knee

In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry murder 300 sioux in South Dakota

American federation of labor

1886; Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, against Knights of Labor, non-violent.

andrew carnegie

vertical integration. philanthropist. 1892 Carnegie Steel Co.

edward bellamy

In 1888, he wrote Looking Backward, a description of a utopian society in the year 2000.

eugene v debs

president and the organizer of the American Railway Union. organized the Pullman Strike and Social Democratic party.

frederick winslow taylor

"Taylorism" - less skilled worker, more employer control, like assembly line

gospel of wealth

Carnegie. Said the wealthy had an obligation to provide opportunities for others.

haymarket bombing

bomb thrown at protest rally, police shot protestors, caused great animosity in employers for workers' unions. knights of labor decline

henry clay frick

Carnegie's cheif lieutenant, He made several wage cuts at the homestead plant causing the homestead strike. pinkerton and troops involved

henry ford

(1863-1947) he was an American businessman, the founder of Ford Motor, modern assembly lines

Henry george

wrote Progress and Poverty, in which he said limited land and a growing population artifically raised property values, enriching landowners. want single tax

homestead strike

Strike at Andrew Carnegie's steel plant in which Pinkerton detectives clashed with steel workers. wage cuts

horatio alger

Writer of novels stressing rags to riches stories of boys.

horizontal integration

Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition. Ex. Rockefeller

john rockefeller

Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history

john peter altgeld

Governor of Illinois. want improve child labor and work safety laws. He resisted calls to break up the Pullman Strike and pardoned three men convicted in the Haymarket bombing.

JP Morgan

Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. trust agreements

knights of labor

1st effort ofNational union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed

molly maguires

An active, militant Irish organization of farmers based in the Pennsylvania coal fields. poor working conditions. violent

national labor union

1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, attempt to unite all laborers

pullman strike

Chicago, Pullman cut wages w/out lower rents in the "company town". Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs jailed. nothing achieved

samuel gompers

creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.

women's trade union league

1903, against bad working condition.

alice hamilton

pushed for government regulations concerning toxic industrial chemicals

armory show

1913 - by the Ashcan School. modernist revolution in American art.

ashcan school

A group of social realists who painted scenes of everyday life in poor, urban neighborhoods

DW Griffith

groundbreaking American film director, directed The Birth of a Nation. (kkk)

Henry James

american writer, realism

jacob riis

A Danish reporter. How The Other Half Lives in 1890. bad tenement conditions

kate chopin

"The Awakening," oppressive of traditional marriage. public abuse. young wife leave family

national consumers league

1890 Florence Kelly, improve wages and working conditions.

stephen crane

writer. realism

tammany hall

NY political machine that primarily w/support from the city's immigrants, notorious boss tweed

theodore dreiser

American naturalist writer. helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.

upton sinclair

The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. spur change

william james

functionalism; Pragmatism,

william m tweed

Boss Tweed, head of Tammy Hall- NY powerful Democratic political machine 1868. He led the Tweed Ring, a group of corrupt politicians, in defrauding the city. jailed

yellow journalism

Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers

boxer rebellion

1900 - Nativist rebellion in China - tried to get rid of all of the foreigners

emilio aquinaldo

Led the Filipino Rebels. Fought for freedom against the U.S. (Philippines)

farmers alliances

Organizations that brought farmers together to form farm cooperatives.

granger laws

railroad discrimination against small farmers,

foraker act

(1900) civil government for Puerto Rico, which was neither fully american nor fully independant. tariff on Puerto Rican products coming into the US.

free silver

Movement for using silver in all aspects of currency. Not adopted because all other countries used a gold standard.

half breeds

Rivals of the Stalwarts; Republican political machine led by James Blaine; were against the spoils system

interstate commerce act

1887 law passed to regulate railroad price and other interstate businesses

jacob coxey

Populist who led Coxey's Army in a march on Washington DC in 1894 to seek government jobs for the unemployed.

mary e lease

Kansas Populist who urged farmers to "raise less corn and more hell"

open door policy

A policy proposed by the US in 1899, ALL nations have equal opportunities to trade in China.

platt amendment

1) Cuba makes no treaty 2) can't borrow money 3)US can get involved with Cuba affairs 4)US has navy there

panic of 1893

due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point

pendleton act

1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission. fed employee can't be forced to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons

populism

supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite

sherman antitrust act

1890 - A federal law opposing monopolies, it prohibits contracts, combinations and conspiracies in restraint of trade.

stalwarts

Republicans fighting for civil service reform during Garfield's term; they supported Cleveland.

the grange

"Patrons of Husbandry", to allow farmers to discuss farm problems and to socialize. want government ownership of railroads

william jennings bryan

Democratic candidate for president in 1896 under the banner of "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party. "cross of gold"

william mckinley

25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii. imperialism. assassinated

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