EXTRACELLULAR FLUID IMBALANCES

5 terms by milkchoco 

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ECF VOLUME DEFICIT - Causes

↑ Insensible water loss or perspiration (high fever, heatstroke)
Diabetes insipidus
Osmotic diuresis
Overuse of diuretics
Hemorrhage
GI losses—vomiting, NG suction, diarrhea, fistula drainage
Inadequate fluid intake
Third-space fluid shifts—burns, intestinal obstruction

ECF VOLUME EXCESS - Causes

Excessive isotonic or hypotonic IV fluids
Heart failure
Renal failure
Primary polydipsia
SIADH
Cushing syndrome
Long-term use of corticosteroids

ECF VOLUME DEFICIT - Clinical manifestations

Restlessness, drowsiness, LETHARGY, CONFUSION
Thirst, dry mucous membranes
Decreased skin turgor, ↓ capillary refill
Postural hypotension, ↑ pulse, ↓ CVP
↓ Urine output, concentrated urine
↑ Respiratory rate
Weakness, dizziness
Weight loss
SEIZURES, COMA

ECF VOLUME EXCESS - Clinical manifestations

Headache, LETHARGY, CONFUSION
Peripheral edema
Jugular venous distention
Bounding pulse, ↑ BP, ↑ CVP
Polyuria (with normal renal function)
Dyspnea, crackles (rales), pulmonary edema
Muscle spasms
Weight gain
SEIZURES, COMA

Same clinical manifestations

lethargy, confusion
seizures, coma

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