What brought the end to the Gupta Dynasty? When?
Mid 4th-5th centuries; White Huns (nomads) invaded from central Asia
Who did the power of the Gupta administration transfer to?
invaders, local allies, and independent regional power brokers
North India after collapse of the Gupta
became turbulent; region of continuous war
(r. 606-648) temporarily restored unified rule in most of northern India.
What were 3 characteristics of King Harsha's rule?
-extended influence to several states
-looked kindly on other faiths (he was buddhist)
-distributed wealth to subjects
Was King Harsha successful?
Unable to restore permanent centralized rule; local rulers had established authority to securely
Collapse of Harsha's Kingdom
He was assassinated, leaving no heir. Empire immediately disintegrated & local rulers returned to fighting
How did Islam reach India? (give 3 routes)
2.Muslim Merchants integrating
3.Migrations & Invasions of turkish speaking people from central Asia
Mahmud of Ghazni
Leader of Turks in Afghanistan; he and his forces tried to force Islam on India by demolishing Hindu/Buddhist temples (unsuccessful)
The Sultanate of Delhi
Mahmud's successors conquered & converted most of northern India and established an Islamic state, The Sultanate of Delhi.
South India after the collapse of the Gupta
Escaped the invasions, chronic war, and turmoil of the north; Hindu rulers most presided over small, loosely administered states.
The Chola Kingdom
(850-1267) Located in the deep south; not a tightly centralized state--relied on autonomy for local and village institutions. Focused on profiting from trading rather than powerful state building.
The Kingdom of Vijayangar
Original efforts by the Sultans of Delhi, who left two brothers, Harihara and Bukka, to represent the sultan. They converted the state back to Hindu from Islamic and established an independent empire until it fell to Muslim kingdoms in 1565
How did a coherent society develop in India without an organized political system?
Basis of trade, common social structures, and inherited cultural traditions
What were 3 outcomes of the agricultural yields presented in the post-classical era in India?
1.Devotion to trade/manufacturing than production of food
2.Fostered economic development
3.Created links between India and distant lands
Essential due to the Monsoon Winds, provide water during dry months. Arid land w/o rivers, and a large population led to mass efforts. Led to increases in agricultural productivity
Due to increasing productivity; raised 20% from the fall of the Gupta to 800.
Encouragement of concentration of people in cities as population & agricultural productivity grew. Delhi was the capital city
How did trade first began to increase?
As population grew, specialized labor became available; trade followed
Self sufficient in rice, wheat, barely, and millet.
Pepper, saffron and sugar were popular commodities in subcontinental trade
Temples and Society
India organized their own affairs around the Hindu temples; served as economic and social centers
What did Hindu Temples maintain?
Agricultural activities, work on irrigation, maining surplus, schooling for boys, employed hundreds, served as bankers (made loans, invested in business). Promoted production & trade
Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin (improvements)
Larger ships, improved commercial organization increased volume and value
Dhows and Junks
Mariners that recognized the monsoon patterns, and could carry much larger loads; usually conducted trade in stages
India was located in the center of the IOB; became the main clearinghouse of trade & became cosmopolitan centers.
Indian artisans built thriving local industries around cotton-textile production; also developed techniques in sugar refining, leather tanning, stone carving, carpet weaving, & iron and steel production; trade encouraged this in all lands
What were some reasons for the changes in the Indian caste system during the post-classical era? (4)
2.Growing presence of Islam
How did the caste system adjust?
Adapted to the new conditions, and ended up with a more complex system and expanded
How did the caste system replace a central government?
Maintained order in local communities by providing roles for individuals in society & their relationships with others
Caste & Migrations
Helped integrate merchants into society; established codes of conduct for within their own groups behavior and how to deal with members of other castes
Caste & Social Changes
The Jati caste, workers guild, organized merchants and manufacturers and represented their group. These people became increasingly important and worked within the caste system, as they were specialized on their productions
Expansion of the Caste System
The caste was already present in north India, but became established in the south due to economic development, the emergence of workers' guilds, & powerful temple/ brahmins influence
What were general cultural changes made in the Postclassical era?
Jainism & Buddhism lost popularity; Hinduism & Islamic traditions dominated after 1000
Decline of Buddhism
Invasions of India by turkish people; destroyed Buddhist suptas and shrines. Muslim forces overran cities and exiled monks
Vishnu & Shiva
devotional cults; two of the most important dieties
Vishnu: preserver of the world--god who occationally visited earth in human form to resist evil/ communicate teachings
Shiva: god of fertility and destructive deity--brought & took away life
Embraced because they promised salvation; hoped to achieve union with gods to bring grace and salvation. Temples and Shrines began to populate the landscape in north & south India
(Brahmin Philosopher) Southern Indian devotee of Shiva; devoted all Hindu writings and teachings into one consistent system of thought. He believed that the ultimate reality layed behind physical senses
(Brahmin Philosopher) Believed intellectual understanding of reality was less important than personal union with the diety (contrasts Shankara)
Why did Indians convert to Islam?
Hopes to improve position in society; social mobility was not available in Hinduism
Encouraged a personal, emotional, devotional approach to Islam; attracted individuals searching for a faith that wanted purpose in their lives--emphasized piety & devotion
The Bhakti Movement
A cult of love and devotion that sought to erase the distinction between Hinduism and Islam
A blind weaver that was one of the most famous Bhakti teachers; taught of a single, universal deity
Indian Political influence in SE Asia
Adopted kingship as the principle form of political authority
Introduction of Hinduism and Buddhism to SE Asia
They embraced Ramayana and the Mahabharata, which promoted Hindu values & explained buddhism; attracted because they enforced monarchical rule
First state known to reflect Indian culture
How did Islam faith enter SE Asia?
Ruling elites, traders, and others who dealt with Muslims became interested; they didn't push subjects to convert, yet Sufis preached and attracted people in the same way as they did in India
State that sponsored Islamic faith, and became powerful through maritime trade; sponsored missionary campaigns to spread Islam through SE Asia