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Definitions, dates, descriptions.

Abigail Adams

Wife of John Adams, supporter of American Revolution, wrote about expanding women's rights.

John Adams

Revolutionary leader from Massachusetts, served in Second Continental Congress, became second President of the United States.

John Quincy Adams

Son of John Adams, famous diplomat, sixth President of the United States

James Armistead

Famous African-American Patriot spy during the American Revolution

Samuel Adams

Boston Patriot who opposed Stamp Act and organized the Sons of liberty and Committees of Correspondence. Played a role in planning the Boston Tea Party.

Crispus Attucks

Victim of the Boston Massacre, first African-American to fall during the Revolution.

Phillip Bazaar

Navy seaman, born in Chile, South America, awarded the Medal of honor during Civil War.

John C. Cahoun

Vice President during part of the Jackson presidency and led the protest against the Tariff of 1828. Argued that each state had the right to nullify (cancel) a federal law in the Nullification Crisis.

William Carney

African-American soldier during the Civil War, awarded the Medal of Honor.

Wentworth Cheswell

Member of the Committee of Safety, fought during the American Revolution.

Henry Clay

Known as the great compromiser in the Congress. Authored the 1920 Missouri Compromise (equal balance of slave states and free states) and proposed tariff reductions to end the Nullification Crisis.

Jefferson Davis

President of the Confederacy during the Civil War

Frederick Douglass

Famous black abolitionist. Born a slave but fled to Massachusetts. Published an abolitionist newspaper, The North Star.

Benjamin Franklin

Most celebrated Colonial American. Proposed plan to unite the colonies during the French and Indian War (Join or Die political cartoon), helped Jefferson write the Declaration of Independence, and was the French ambassador during the American Revolution to France.

Bernardo de Galvez

Spanish military leader, defeated British army in Florida, aided patriots with arms/supplies

William Lloyd Garrison

Abolitionists who published a journal, The Liberator, to end slavery.

King George III

King of English during the American Revolution. Thought that the colonists should pay more taxes to support the British government. Was named as a tyrant in the Declaration of Independence.

Ulysses S. Grant

Union General who was name General-in-Chief during the Civil War. Later became President of the United States

Alexander Hamilton

One fo the authors of the Federalist Papers. Argued for a strong national government to protect the small states. Also favored a strong national government to regulate commerce for U.S. business. Authored the financial plan for George Washington's presidency.

Patrick Henry

Inspired colonists during the American Revolution with famous quote, "Give me liberty or give me death!" Leader of the Anti-Federalist and opposed a strong national government.

Thomas Jefferson

Main author of the Declaration of Independence. Opposed Hamilton's ideas as a cabinet member during Washington's presidency, which gave rise to the first political party, Democratic-Republicans. Became the third president of the United States during the Louisiana Purchase.

Andrew Jackson

Famous General at the Battle of New Orleans in the War of 1912. Became the 7th President of the United States. Famous for proposing the Indian Removal Act, which removed the Cherokee from the Georgia to president to present-day Oklahoma on the famous "Trait of Tears."

Marquis de Lafayette

French military officer who helped defeat the British during the American Revolution.

Robert E. Lee

Commander of the Confederate Army during the Civil War.

Abraham Lincoln

President during the Civil War. Vowed to preserve the Union at the beginning of the war in his First Inaugural Address in 1961, and later added to abolish slavery in the Confederate states in the Emancipation Proclamation in 1862. His Second Inaugural Address spoke out against slavery. Lincoln was assassinated in 1865 by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer.

James Madison

"Father of the Constitution" and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers arguing for a strong central government. Initially a strong Federalist, he gradually became a Democratic-Republican, Jefferson's Secretary of State, and the 4th President of the United States.

James Monroe

A Democratic-Republican and the 5th President of the United States. Famous for the Monroe Doctrine issued during his presidency. The Monroe Doctrine opposed European powers to colonize in the Western Hemisphere. The Doctrine was a "hands off" warning to European nationals to stay in their hemisphere and became the foreign policy for the U.S. for many years.

Thomas Paine

Wrote, Common Senses, a pamphlet which argued that it was foolish for the colonies to be governed by a country so far away and that the Colonies should have self-rule.

James K. Polk

president from 1845 to 1949. Known as the Manifest Destiny President for the many large land acquisitions during his administration: Texas, Oregon Country, and the Mexican Cession.

Haym Solomon

Polish-born Jewish immigrant to America, helped finance the American Revolution.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Women, which launched the Women's movement to gain voting rights. With Lucretia Mott, she helped to organize the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848.

Mercy Otis Warren

Wrote letters, poems, and plays that supported the patrio cause during the Revolution.

George Washington

Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution. Later became the first President of the United States.

Daniel Webster

U.S. Senator who argued against nullification during the Nullification crisis. Favored a strong national government instead of states' rights.

Phillip Wheatley

First African-American poet and 1st to publish a book. While a slave during the pre-Revolutionary period, she wrote poems honoring famous figures (like George Washington) and that reflected the colonist's rebellious ideas. She was highly regarded by Americans and Europeans for her writings.

Abolitionist Movement

The social movement to end slavery (Leaders: Fredrick Douglas, Sojourner Truth, William L. Garrison)

Education Movement

Horace Mann led the movement to establish free, state financed elementary schools.

Women's Movement

Focused on gaining voting rights (Suffrage) for women (Leaders: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Lubretia Mott)

Temperance Movement

Opposed the drinking of alcohol and encouraged reformers to find solutions to other social problems.

Industrial Revolutions

Movement from Europe in which America saw its level of industry grow to levels which encouraged urbanization 9the movement of more and more people to citizies and away from farmings).

Transportation Revolution

Increased movement of population and goods between east and west. U.S. expands! Examples: National Road from Maryland to Ohio 1811-1852; Canal Building-Erie Canal completed in 1825. The canal went from Albany, New York, to Buffalo, New York; steamboats and railroads in the early 1800s.

Cotton Gin

Invented by Eli Whitney in the 1790s to remove the seeds from cotton. Cotton production AND slavery increase.

Textile Factories

Used machines to produce cloth in large quantities. Samuel Slater established the first textile factory.

Samuel Slater

Established the first textile factory.

Seamboats

Robert Fulton developed the first steamboat powered by a steam engine in the 1830s.

Trains

Powered by steam locomotives by the 1930s.

Telegraph

Samuel Morse built the first telegraphy system in the 1840s.

What year was Jamestown founded?

1607

What year was the Declaration of Independence signed?

1776

What year did the Philadelphia Convention (also called the Constitutional Convention) happen?

1787

What year was the Louisiana Purchase?

1803

What were the years of the Civil War?

1861-1865

Jamestown

1st permanent English settlement in North America. Located in Virginia. Founded 1607.

Declaration of Independence

Written mostly by Thomas Jefferson, it listed grievances (complaints) and charges against the Parliament and British King and declared the colonies free and independent from Great Britain. Signed in 1776.

Philadelphia Convention (also known as Constitutional Convention)

Delegates met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to revise the Articles of the Confederation; instead they wrote a new constitution and formed a federal system of government. 1787.

Louisiana Purchase

Land purchased during President Jefferson's term of office from France for $15 million. The land was from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and was explored by Lewis & Clark. 1803

Civil War

War between the Union (North) and the Confederacy (South) over states' rights and slavery. 1861-1865

Marbury v Madison

Supreme Court case that established judicial review which allows federal courts to strike down laws that violate the United States Constitution.

Dred Scott v. Sanford

Supreme Court case that ruled that slaves were property.

What parties were involved in the Constitutional Debate and what were their positions?

Federalist supported ratification of the Constitution. Led by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay. Believed in a strong national government.
Anti-Federalist opposed ratification of the Constitution. Let by Patrick Henry and George Mason. Thought the Constitution should have a Bill of Rights.

Federalist (part of the Constitutional Debate)

Supported ratification of the Constitution. Led by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay. Believed in a strong national government.

Anti-Federalist (part of the Constitutional Debate)

Opposed ratification of the Constitution. Let by Patrick Henry and George Mason. Thought the Constitution should have a Bill of Rights.

How did political parties come to be?

Political parties began with arguments over the power of the federal government and an opposition to Hamilton's plan for government.

Name the political parties during that time?

Federalist, Democratic Republican, Whig, Democratic, Republican.

What did the Federalist Party want?

Strong federal (central) government with emphasis on manufacturing, loose interpretation of the Constitution, protective tariffs, National Bank, British alliance, and rule by the wealthy.

What did the Democratic Republicans want?

Strong state governments, emphasis on agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, French alliance, state banks, free trade.

What did the Whig Party want?

Whig replaced the Federalist Party after Federalist dissolved in the 1800s. Held many of the Federalist beliefs.

What did the Democratic Party want?

Modern Democratic Party began with the election of Andrew Jackson in 1828.

What did the Republican Party want?

Modern Republican party began before the Civil War as an anti-slavery party. Abraham Lincoln was elected the first Republican President in 1860.

Years of American Revolution?

1775-1781

What was the American Revolution About?

Conflict between Great Britain and its colonies in America. The American colonies declared their independence and were victorious. They became the United States.

What was the year of the Lexington/Concord battle?

1775

What was important about the Lexington/Concord battle?

First shots of the Revolution.

What year was Saratoga battle?

1777

What was important about Saratoga?

Turning point of the Revolution.

What year was Yorktown battle?

1781

What was important about Yorktown?

Last battle of the Revolution.

The war ended 1781. But when was the OFFICIAL end of the Revolution?

When the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783.

What is significance of Treaty of Paris?

Its signing marked the official end of the American Revolution. 1783

The War of 1812 began in 1812. When did it end?

1814. The War of 1812 lasted 2 years.

What was important about the battle at Ft. McHenry?

The Star Spangled Banner written during that battle, in 1813, during the War of 1812.

What year was Battle of New Orleans?

1815. Andrew Jackson gained popularity. It was the final battle of the war. The official end of the War of 1812 was the Treaty of Ghent.

What years spanned Mexican War?

1846-1848

What was the Mexican War about?

War between US and Mexico. Treatment of Guadalupe-Hidalgo gains Mexican Cession for U.S. acquired land that would become California, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona (Mexican Cession).

What years were the Civil War?

1861-1865

Where were the first shots of the Civil War fired and when?

Battle at Fort Sumter. 1861.

What is considered to be the turning point of the Civil War and when was it?

Battle at Gettysburg. 1863

What happened at the Appomattox Courthouse during the Civil War?

General Lee surrendered and war was over. Appomattox was the last war of the civil war.

What was the last war of the Civil War?

Appomattox. 1865.

Magna Carta

Major ideas found in the U.S. constitution of limiting the powers to tax and the right to a fair trial.

English Bill of Rights

Foundation for American government for basis freedoms such as freedom of speech and trial by jury.

Mayflower Compact

document signed by the Pilgrims in which they agreed they would form a representative government and obey its laws.

Who wrote Common Sense / The Crisis?

Thomas Paine.

Articles of Confederation

Document, which formed the first government of the U.S. near the end of the America Revolution. The Confederation government gave states more power than the federal government.

Federalist Papers

Essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay to support the ratification of the Constitution.

US Constitution

A document outlining the basic form and rules of the US Government

US Bill of Rights

First ten amendments to the Constitution guaranteeing individual liberties and due process of law.

Washington's Farewell Address

Washington warned against entering into alliances (groups) with other countries.

Emancipation Proclamation

Freed the slaves in the states of rebellion and changed the purpose of the war to include ending slavery along with preserving the Union.

Gettyburg Address

Speech given by President Lincoln emphasizing the ideas of liberty, equality and Union and the purpose of the Civil War.

13th Amendment

Gave freedom to the slaves in all of the states.

14th Amendment

Required states to give citizenship to all citizens born in the United States and gave other basic human rights.

15th Amendment

Gave African-Americans the right to vote.

What are examples of government compromises on slavery? They actually led to spreading slavery further into the country.

Missouri Compromise 1920
Compromise of 1850
Kansas Nebraska Act

Checks and Balances

Each branch of government can check the power of the other two branches. Keeps any one branch from becoming too powerful.

Federalism

Division of power between the national and state governments.

Free Enterprise System

Individual people and not the government control the economy; people decide what to make, sell and buy.

Jacksonian Democracy

Spreading political power to all people to ensure majority rule.

Limited Government

Government powers are limited to those given to it by the people.

Manifest Destiny

Name given to the idea that the United States was destined to expand from the Atlantic to Pacific Ocean (James K. Polk, President)

Mercantilism

System in which it is a colony's responsibility to support its parent country.

Northwest Ordinance

Set up the method by which the United States territory could grow and expand in an orderly manner. Outlawed slavery in the Northwest Territory.

Nullification

Idea that a state government could nullify or ignore a federal law that they feel unfairly hurts their state (or unconstitutional). South Carolina nearly attempted to secede from US after nullifying protective tariffs in 1828, 1832, but agreed to compromise in 1833.

Popular Sovereignty

A government in which the people rule by their own consent.

Protective Tariffs

Taxes on imported goods that are designed to help United States companies compete in the sale of those goods.

Republicanism

Form of government where people are ruled through elected officials.

Separation of Powers

The division of power between three branches: executive, legislative and judicial.

Trail of Tears

Cherokee and other Native tribes were forced west from Georgia to reservation land (Indian Territory - Oklahoma) after Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act into law. Many died along the trail.

Treaty of Paris 1783

Officially ended American Revolution; British recognized United States as a free and independent country and its lands to the Mississippi River.

Unalienable Rights

Basic rights that cannot be taken away from the people such as "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness." These rights are stated in the Declaration of Independence.

Virginia House of Burgesses

First representative assembly (legislature) in the colonies.

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