blood vocab

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blood vocab

hematocrit

is a measurement of the proportion of blood that contains the RBCs

histology

biology, study of tissues

microcapillary tube

the tube that is used in a hematocrit

reason for low hematocrit

1. lack RBCs
2. too much water

reason for high hematocrit

1. too many RBCs
2. dehydration

Anemia

1. lack of hemoglobin
2. lack of RBCs

iron deficiency

most common anemia
not enough hemoglobin b/c lack iron

Pernicious

anemia
not enough RBC b/c lack Vit B12

Sickle cell

anemia
destruction of RBC

Polycythemia

too many RBCs.
most common in chronic lung disease
blood gets thicker

erythropoiesis

formation of RBCs

erythropoietin

decrease in blood oxygen causes kidney & liver to release
stimulate bone marrow to make more
kidneys measure oxygen content and are primary control of how many RBCs there are

diapedesis

cells become thin, elongate and move either between or thru endothelial cells of capillaries

chemotaxis

attraction to and movement towards foreign materials or damaged cells

neutrophils

function: attack & destroy bacteria
phagocytic
diapedesis
secrete lyzosome
die quickly

lymphocytes

function: specific immunity, respond to infections
lymphatic tissues
responsible for antibody production

monocytes

function: becomes macrophages & engulf lg. foreign particles
in blood
mobile and phagocytic

eosinophils

function: respond to allergic reations & parasitic infections
enter tissues during inflammation response
lines respiratory & digestive tracts

basophils

function: promotes inflammation & healing of wounds
involved in inflammatory & allergic
produce histamine & heparin
mast cells

mast cells

immune system cell which antibodies become attached in early states of inflammation

leukopenia

low WBC count

leukocytosis

high WBC count

differential WBC count

list %'s of types of leukocytes

formationof WBC

1. colony stimulating factors
2. interleukin

erythrocytes

RBC
transport of oxygen & carbon dioxide

leukocytes

WBC
protect against pathogens

thrombocytes

platelets
involved in blood clotting
pinched off megakaryote

platelets - 3 characteristics

1. adhesive = stickey
2. aggregate = platelets come together
3. agglutination = clump together (not clot)

thrombocytopenia

too few platelets

thromocytosis

too many platelets

agglutination

clumping of RBCs in response to a reaction btw an antibody and antigen

antigen

on the RBC
molecule that stimulates cells to produce antibodies

antibody

in the plasma
protein that reacts against a specific antigen

Type A

Antigen A
Anti-B antibody

Type B

Antigen B
Anti-A antibody

Type AB

Antigen A & B
no antibody
universal recepient

Type O

no antigens
Anti-A and Anti-B antibodies
universal donor

Rh positive

Rn antigen
no antibody
you can get both Rh-positve and Rh negative because you have no antibodies

Rh-negative

no Rh antigen
no antibody

Rhogam

shot before and after birth if you are a Rh-negative mother and have a Rh-positive baby

Plasma

91% water
proteins, ions, nutrients, wastes gases, regulatory subst

plasma proteins (3)

1. albumin - viscosity, osmotic pressure, buffer
2. Globulins - transports lipids, carbs, hormones, antibodies
3. Fibrinogen - blood clotting, hold clot in place
gamma globulins synthesized by plasma cell (B cells)

coagulation

1. stop bleeding
2. prevent blood loss
Requires: platelets & plasma proteins, calcium

hemostasis

arrest of bleeding
1. vascular spasm (vasoconstriction)
2. platelet plug
3. coagulation or blood clotting

prothrombin triggers

thrombin
add calcium and the fibrinogen

fibrinogen triggers

fibrin

extrinsic pathway

cut yourself and starts a series

intrinsic

starts inside your body b/c of disease

factors that prevent clotting

1. smooth endothelium
2. heparin (anti-coagulant)

factor that promote clotting

1. stasis - lack of blood flow
2. damaged endothelium

thrombis

clot

thrombosis

condition of stationary clot

embolus

mobile clot

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