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ms eichman ch6 test

aerobic

uses oxygen

anaerobic

doesn't use oxygen

respiration

breathing

formula for cellular respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

40%

% of glucose's energy a typical cell banks

2%

% of glucose's energy a muscle cell harvests anaerobically

redox reaction

the movement of electrons from one molecule to another is an oxidation-reduction reaction

oxidation

the loss of electrons from one substance

reduction

the addition of electrons to another substance

dehydrogenase

an enzyme that catalyzes a chemical reaction during which one or more hydrogen atoms are removed from a molecule

NAD+

an organic molecule that is used to shuttle electrons in redox reactions

electron carriers

shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy ultimately used for ATP synthesis

electron transport chains

series of electron carriers

chemiosmosis

the production of ATP using the energy of H+ gradients across membranes, powers most ATP production

ATP synthase

synthesize ATP using energy stored in concentration gradients of H+i ions across membranes

substrate-level phosphorylation

when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from an organic substrate molecule to ADP

Krebs cycle

completes the breakdown of glucose by decomposing a derivative of pyruvic acid to carbon dioxide

glycolysis

begins respirations by breaking glucose into two molecules of compound called pyruvic acid

intermediates

the compounds that form between the initial reactant, glucose, and the final product, pyruvic acid

acetyl CoA

a high-energy fuel molecule for the Krebs cycle, needed for glucose to enter the Krebs cycle

38

maximum ATP per glucose

alcoholic fermentation

CO2 is removed from pyruvic acid and NADH is oxidized, thus recharging the cell with a supply of NAD+ that keeps glycolysis working, the production of ethanol from glucose (slow muscle fibers)

lactic acid fermentation

CO2 is removed from pyruvic acid and NADH is oxidized, thus recharging the cell with a supply of NAD+ that keeps glycolysis working, lactic acid is produced when NADH from glycolysis is oxidized (fast muscle fibers)

strict anaerobes

the bacteria that live in stagnant ponds and deep in the soil

facultative anaerobes

make ATP either by fermentation or chemiosmosis, depending on the availibility of O2 (yeast)

fast muscle fibers

anaerobically, lighter color

slow muscle fibers

aerobically, darker color

citric

first acid

alpha-ketoglutaric

second acid

succinic

third acid

malic

fourth acid

oxaloacetic

fifth acid

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