Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

respiratory vocab

ventilation

movement of air into out of lungs

external respiration

gas exchange btw air in lungs and blood

internal respiration

gas exchange btw blood and tissues

upper tract

nose, pharynx, larynx
functions:
1. warm, filter & humidify
2. conduction of air

lower tract

trachea, bronchi, bronchioles & alveoli
functions:
1. conduction of air
2. gas exchange

respiratory functions

1. gas exchange
2. regulation of pH
3. voice production
4. olfaction
5. protection

pathway for air flow (10)

nose--->pharynx--->larynx--->trachea--->bronchi--->bronchioles--->terminal bronchioles--->respiratory bronchioles--->alveolar ducts--->alveoli

pleura functions

1. keep lungs inflated
2. reduce friction
3. causes suction

pneumothorax

air in pleural space, possibly causing collapse of lung

atelectasis

collapse of scattered alveoli

inspiration

diaphragm contracts & flattens
thoracic cavity volume increases
air pressure decreases

expiration

diaphragm relaxes & dome shape returns
thoracic cavity volume decreases
air pressure increases

compliance

ability of pulmonary tissue to stretch = inspiration
increase compliance = easier to stretch

high compliance

easy to stretch, low in elastance
get a lot of air in, but hard to get out
ex. emphysema

high elastance

hard to get air in, but easy to get out

elastance (elastic recoil)

tendency of pulmonary tissues to return to smaller size after being stretched = expiration

alveolar ventilation

how much air gets into alveoli.
tidal volume less anatomical dead space

partial pressure

pressure exerted by a gas in a mixture of gases
influences the movement of air into alveoli

factors influencing oxygen diffusion

1. oxygen pressure gradient
2. total functional surface area
3. alveolar ventilation = breath slowly
4. thickness of respiratory membrane

transport of carbons

1. dissolved in plasma
2. carbaminohemoglobin
3. biocarbonate

carbonic anhydrase

found in RBC, convert Co2 & H2O into carbonic acid, which converts to bicarbonate

tissue Po2

40mmHg

tissue CO2

46mmHg

apnea

w/o breathing

tachypnea

fast respiratory rate

bradypnea

low respiratory rate

dyspnea

difficulty breathing

hyperventilation

excessive ventilation which reduces CO2 levels
cuases hypocapnia

hypoventilation

inadequate ventilation which increase CO2 levels
causes hypercapnia

hypercapnia

increase in CO2 levels in blood, caused by hypoventilation

hypocapnia

decrease in CO2 levels in blood, caused by hyperventilation

hypoxia

lack of oxygenation in tissues
stimulates formation of RBCs but must have hemoglobin to transport the oxygen

hypoxemia

decrease in PO2 levels in blood

acidosis

decrease in pH

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set