A molecule of oxygen containing three oxygen atoms.
The lowermost layer of the atmosphere; it is generally characterized by a decrease in temperature with height.
The layer of the atmosphere immediately above the troposphere, characterized by increasing temperatures with height, due to the concentration of ozone.
The layer of the atmosphere immediately above the stratosphere and characterized by decreasing temperatures with height.
The region of the atmosphere immediately above the mesosphere and characterized by increasing temperatures with height due to absorption of very short-wave solar energy by oxygen.
The solstice that occurs on June 21 or 22 in the Northern Hemisphere and on December 21 or 22 in the Southern Hemisphere.
The solstice that occurs on December 21 or 22 in the Northern Hemisphere and on June 21 or 22 in the Southern Hemisphere.
The equinox that occurs on September 22 or 23 in the Northern Hemisphere and on March 21 or 22 in the Southern Hemisphere
The equinox that occurs on March 21 or 22 in the Northern Hemisphere and on September 22 or 23 in the Southern Hemisphere.
Thermal energy transferred from one object to another.
A measure of the average kinetic energy of individual atoms or molecules in a substance.
The transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity; Energy is transferred through collisions from one molecule to another.
The transfer of heat by the movement of a mass or substance; It can take place only in fluids.
The transfer of energy through space by electromagnetic waves.
The process whereby light bounces back from an object at the same angle at which it encounters a surface and with the same intensity.
The redirecting (in all directions) of light by small particles and gas molecules in the atmosphere; The result is more light rays with weaker intensity.
The heating of Earth's surface and atmosphere from solar radiation being absorbed and emitted by the atmosphere, mainly by water vapor and carbon dioxide.
The fraction of the total radiation that is reflected back by a surface.
A line connecting points of equal temperature.