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Vision

A mental image of a possible and desirable future state of the organization

Supervisory Leadership

Behavior that provides guidance, support, and corrective feedback for day-to-day activities

Strategic Leadership

Behavior that gives purpose and meaning to organizations, envisioning and creating a positive future

Power

The ability to influence others

Trait Approach

A leadership perspective that attempts to determine the personal characteristics that great leaders share

Behavioral Approach

A leadership perspective that attempts to identify what good leaders do - that is, what behaviors they exhibit

Task Performance Behaviors

Actions taken to ensure that the work group or organization reaches its goals

Group Maintenance Behaviors

Actions taken to ensure the satisfaction of group members, develop and maintain harmonious work relationships, and preserve the social stability of the group

Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Exchange

Highlights the importance of leader behaviors not just toward the group as a whole but toward individuals on a personal basis

Participation Decision Making

Leader behaviors that managers perform in involving their employees in making decisions

Autocratic Leadership

A form of leadership in which the leader makes decisions on his or her own and then announces those decisions to the group

Democratic Leadership

A form of leadership in which the leader solicits input from subordinates

Laissez-Faire

A leadership philosophy characterized by an absence of managerial decision making

Situational Approach

Leadership perspective proposing that universally important traits and behaviors do not exist, and that effective leadership behavior varies from situation to situation

Vroom Model

A situational model that focuses on the participative dimension of leadership

Fiedler's Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness

A situational approach to leadership postulating that effectiveness depends on the personal style of the leader and the degree to which the situation gives the leader power, control, and influence over the situation

Task-Motivated Leadership

Leadership that places primary emphasis on completing a task

Relationship-Motivated Leadership

Leadership that places primary emphasis on maintain good interpersonal relationships

Hershey and Blanchard's Situational Theory

A life-cycle theory of leadership postulating that a manager should consider an employee's psychological and job maturity before deciding whether task performance or maintenance behaviors are more important

Job Maturity

The level of the employee's skills and technical knowledge relative to the task being performed

Psychological Maturity

An employee's self-confidence and self-respect

Path-Goal Theory

A theory that concerns how leaders influences subordinates' perceptions of their work goals and the paths they follow toward attainment of those goals

Substitutes for Leadership

Factors in the workplace that can expert the same influence on employees as leaders would provide

Charismatic Leader

A person who is dominant, self-confident, convinced of the moral righteousness of his or her beliefs, and able to arouse a sense of excitement and adventure in followers

Transformational Leader

A leader who motivates people to transcend their personal interests for the good of the group

Transactional Leader

Leaders who manage through transactions, using their legitimate, reward, and coercive power to give commands and exchange rewards for services rendered

Level 5 Leadership

A combination of strong professional will (determination) and humility that builds enduring greatness

Authentic Leadership

A style in which the leader is true to himself or herself while leading

Pseudo-Transformational Leaders

Leaders who talk about positive change but allow their self-interest to take precedence over followers' needs

Servant-Leader

A leader who serves others' needs while strengthening the organization

Bridge Leaders

A leader who bridges conflicting value systems or different cultures

Shared Leadership

Rotating leadership, in which people rotate through the leadership role based on which person has the most relevant skills at a particular time

Lateral Leadership

Style in which colleagues at the same hierarchical level are invited to collaborate and facilitate joint problem solving

Managing Diversity

Managing a culturally diverse workforce by recognizing the characteristics common to specific groups of employees while dealing with such employees as individuals and supporting, nurturing, and utilizing their differences to the organization's advantage

Sexual Harassment

Conduct of a sexual nature that has negative consequences for employment

Affirmative Action

Special efforts to recruit and hire qualified members of groups that have been discriminated against in the past

Monolithic Organization

An organization that has a low degree of structural integration - employing few women, minorities, or other groups that differ from the majority - and thus has a highly homogenous employee population

Pluralistic Organization

An organization that has a relatively diverse employee population and makes an effort to involve employees from different gender, racial, or cultural backgrounds

Multicultural Organization

An organization that values cultural diversity and seeks to utilize and encourage it

Mentors

Higher-level managers who help ensure that high-potential people are introduced to top management and socialized into the norms and values of the organization

Motivation

Forces that energize, direct, and sustain a person's efforts

Goal-Setting Theory

A motivation theory stating that people have conscious goals that energize them and direct their thoughts and behaviors toward a particular end

Stretch Goals

Targets that are particularly demanding, sometimes even thought to be impossible

Law of Effect

A law formulated by Edward Thorndike in 1911 stating that behavior that is followed by positive consequences will likely be repeated

Reinforcers

Positive consequences that motivates behavior

Organizational Behavior Modification (OP Mod)

The application of reinforcement theory in organizational settings

Positive Reinforcement

Applying consequences that increase the likelihood that a person will repeat the behavior that led to it

Negative Reinforcement

Removing or withholding an undesirable consequence

Punishment

Administering an aversive consequence

Extinction

Withdrawing or failing to provide a reinforcing consequence

Expectancy Theory

A theory proposing that people will behave based on their perceived likelihood that their effort will lead to a certain outcome and on how highly they value that outcome

Expectancy

Employees' perception of the likelihood that their efforts will enable them to attain their performance goals

Outcome

A consequence a person receives for his or her performance

Instrumentality

The perceived likelihood that performance will be followed by a particular outcome

Valence

The value an outcome holds for the person contemplating it

Maslow's Need Hierarchy

A conception of human needs organizing needs into a hierarchy of five major types

Alderfer's ERG Theory

A human needs theory postulating that people have three basic sets of needs that can operate simultaneously

Extrinsic Rewards

Rewards given to a person by the boss, the company, or some other person

Intrinsic Reward

Reward a worker derives directly from performing the job itself

Job Rotation

Changing from one routine task to another to alleviate boredom

Job Enlargement

Giving people additional tasks at the same time to alleviate boredom

Job Enrichment

Changing a task to make it inherently more rewarding, motivating, and satisfying

Two-Factor Theory

Herzberg's theory describing two factors affecting people's work motivation and satifaction

Hygiene Factors

Characteristics of the workplace, such as company policies, working conditions, pay, and supervision that can make people dissatisfied

Motivators

Factors that make a job more motivating, such as additional job responsibilities, opportunities for personal growth and recognition, and feelings of achievement

Growth Need Strength

The degree to which individuals want personal and psychological development

Empowerment

The process of sharing power with employees, thereby enhancing their confidence in their ability to perform their jobs and their belief that they are influential contributors to the organization

Equity Theory

A theory stating that people assess how fairly they have been treated according to two key factors - outcomes and inputs

Procedural Justice

Using fair process in decision making and making sure others know that the process was as fair as possible

Quality of Work Life (QWL) Programs

Programs designed to create a workplace that enhances employee well-being

Psychological Contract

A set of perceptions of what employees owe their employers, and what their employers owe them

Control

Any process that directs the activities of individuals toward the achievement of organizational goals

Bureaucratic Control

The use of rules, regulations, and authority to guide performance

Market Control

Control based on the use of pricing mechanisms and economic information to regulate activities within organizations

Clan Control

Control based on the norms, values, shared goals, and trust among group members

Standard

Expected performance for a given goal: a target that establishes a desired performance level, motivates performance, and serves as a benchmark against which actual performance is assessed

Principle of Expectation

A managerial principle stating that control is enhanced by concentrating on the expectations to or significant deviations from the expected result or standard

Feed-forward Control

The control process used before operations begin, including policies, procedures, and rules designed to ensure that planned activities are carried out properly

Concurrent Control

The control process used whiles plans are being carried out, including directing, monitoring, and fine-tuning activities as they are performed

Feedback Control

Control that focuses on the use of information about previous results to correct deviations from the acceptable standard

Management Audits

An evaluation of the effectiveness and efficiency of various systems within an organization

External Audit

An evaluation conducted by one organization, such as a CPA firm, on another

Internal Audit

A periodic assessment of a company's own planning, organizing, leading, controlling processes

Budgeting

The process of investigating what is being done and comparing the results with the corresponding budget data to verify accomplishments or remedy differences; also called budgetary controlling

Accounting Audits

Procedures used to verify accounting reports and statements

Activity-Based Costing (ABC)

A method of cost accounting designed to identify streams of activity and then to allocate costs across particular business processes according to the amount of time employees devote to particular activities

Balance Sheet

A report that shows the financial picture of a company at a given time and itemizes assets, liabilities, and stockholder's equity

Assets

The values of the various items the corporation owns

Liabilities

The amounts a corporation owes to various creditors

Stockholder's Equity

The amount accruing to the corporation's owners

Profit and Loss Statement

An itemized financial statement of the income and expenses of a company's operations

Current Ratio

A liquidity ratio that indicates the extent to which short-term assets can decline and still be adequate to pay short-term liabilities

Debt-Equity Ratio

A leverage ratio that indicates the company's ability to meet its long-term financial obligations

Ratio on Investment (RIO)

A ratio of profit to capital used, or a rate of return from capital

Management Myopia

Focusing on short-term earnings and profits at the expense of longer-term strategic obligations

Balanced Scorecard

Control system combining four sets of performance measures: financial, customer, business process, and learning and growth

Transfer Price

Price charged by one unit for a good or service provided to another unit within the organization

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