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5 Written Questions

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. condition where blood glucose level is less than 2.5mmol/L (45mg/dL), symptom of underlying disease, can develop as result of liver diease, hormonal disorder, genetic disorcer, GI tract surgery

    body responds to falling blood glucose levels by stimulating sympathteic nervous system-->induces secretino of epinephrine, cortisol, glucagon-->have collective antagonistic effect on insulin secretion

    first organ to be affected is brain

    symptoms include confusion, dizziness, shaky feelling, hunger, headaches, irritability, pounding heart, racing pulse, pale skin, sweating, trembling, weakness, anxiety

    two division of symptoms: adrenergic and neuroglycopenic

    two regulator mechanisms: pancreatic secretion of glucagon, hypothalamus glucoreceptors

    classified as either reactive hypoglycemia or true organic fasting hypoglycemia

    occurs in insulin-dependent diabetics usually as a result of excess insulin or sulphonylurea administration, strenuous exercise, insufficient carbohydrate ingestion, excess alcohol ingestion
  2. releases insulin-like protein that causes hypoglycaemia
  3. mediated by impaired supply of glucose to brain over extended period of time, following gradual decline in blood glucose concentration, does not elicit epinephrine response, brain cell malfunction when deprived of glucose, cognitive behavior affected, have slurred speech, confusion, seizures, may have coma leading to death if not corrected, slow decline in blood glucose level without sudden release of epinephrine
  4. formed when proinsulin is converted into insulin in pancreas, essential for proper folding of insulin, has a longer t1/2 than insulin (6min)-->elevated serum levels accompanies hyperinsulinism
  5. indicative of insulin overdose, accidental or deliberate

5 True/False Questions

  1. insulinomatumor in region of β-cells of islets of Langerhans, associated with excessive insulin production and secretion, mostly benign solitary lesions,usually found in tail of pancreas, treatment by surgery wherever possible

          

  2. adrenergic symptoms of hypoglycemiaresult of effects of epinephrine (palpitations, tremors, sweating), usually occur following sudden drop in blood glucose levels--catecholamine surge

          

  3. fasting hypoglycemiausually occurs 6-7 hours after last meal, indicative of underlying disorder, most patients are Type 1 diabetics receiving too large dose of insulin, may be caused by liver disease (more than 80% of liver damage can severely compromise hepatic gluconeogenesis), can be caused by Addison's disease--hyposecretion of cortisol rendering tissues more sensitive to insulin

          

  4. factitious hypoglycaemiausually occurs 6-7 hours after last meal, indicative of underlying disorder, most patients are Type 1 diabetics receiving too large dose of insulin, may be caused by liver disease (more than 80% of liver damage can severely compromise hepatic gluconeogenesis), can be caused by Addison's disease--hyposecretion of cortisol rendering tissues more sensitive to insulin

          

  5. reactive hypoglycemiausually occurs 6-7 hours after last meal, indicative of underlying disorder, most patients are Type 1 diabetics receiving too large dose of insulin, may be caused by liver disease (more than 80% of liver damage can severely compromise hepatic gluconeogenesis), can be caused by Addison's disease--hyposecretion of cortisol rendering tissues more sensitive to insulin

          

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