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Articulates with hip bones of the pelvis.

a) Cervical curvature (concave)
7 vertebrae C1-C7

b) Thoracic Curvature (concave)
12 vertebrae T1-T12

c) Lumbar curvature (concave)
5 vertebrae L1-L5

d) Sacral curvature (convex)
5 fused vertebrae
Sacrum

e) Coccyx
4 fused vertebrae

d) Sacral curvature

Attach to ribs.

a) Cervical curvature (concave)
7 vertebrae C1-C7

b) Thoracic Curvature (concave)
12 vertebrae T1-T12

c) Lumbar curvature (concave)
5 vertebrae L1-L5

d) Sacral curvature (convex)
5 fused vertebrae
Sacrum

e) Coccyx
4 fused vertebrae

b) Thoracic curvature

Receive the most stress.

a) Cervical curvature (concave)
7 vertebrae C1-C7

b) Thoracic Curvature (concave)
12 vertebrae T1-T12

c) Lumbar curvature (concave)
5 vertebrae L1-L5

d) Sacral curvature (convex)
5 fused vertebrae
Sacrum

e) Coccyx
4 fused vertebrae

c) Lumbar curvature

Transverse foramina present.

a) Cervical curvature (concave)
7 vertebrae C1-C7

b) Thoracic Curvature (concave)
12 vertebrae T1-T12

c) Lumbar curvature (concave)
5 vertebrae L1-L5

d) Sacral curvature (convex)
5 fused vertebrae
Sacrum

e) Coccyx
4 fused vertebrae

a) Cervical curvature


The pedicles have notches on their superior and inferior borders, providing lateral openings between adjacent vertebrae called intervertebral foramina.

pedicles = "little feet"
The pedicles, short bondy pillars projecting posteriorly from the vertebral body, form the sides of the arch.

No canals or foramen present.

a) Cervical curvature (concave)
7 vertebrae C1-C7

b) Thoracic Curvature (concave)
12 vertebrae T1-T12

c) Lumbar curvature (concave)
5 vertebrae L1-L5

d) Sacral curvature (convex)
5 fused vertebrae
Sacrum

e) Coccyx
4 fused vertebrae

e) Coccyx

vertebral canal = through which the spinal cord passes.

foramen = the hole in the middle of each spinal bone.

Includes the atlas and the axis.

a) Cervical curvature (concave)
7 vertebrae C1-C7

b) Thoracic Curvature (concave)
12 vertebrae T1-T12

c) Lumbar curvature (concave)
5 vertebrae L1-L5

d) Sacral curvature (convex)
5 fused vertebrae
Sacrum

e) Coccyx
4 fused vertebrae

a) Cervical curvature

Contains the joint that allows you to rotate your head "no".

a) Cervical curvature (concave)
7 vertebrae C1-C7

b) Thoracic Curvature (concave)
12 vertebrae T1-T12

c) Lumbar curvature (concave)
5 vertebrae L1-L5

d) Sacral curvature (convex)
5 fused vertebrae
Sacrum

e) Coccyx
4 fused vertebrae

a) Cervical curvature

Nasal septum.
CCMPO
Located in the Ethmoid bone, The delicate Ethmoid bone has a complex shape. Lying between the sphenoid and the nasal bones of the face, it is the most deeply situated bone of the skull. It forms most of the bony area between the nasal cavity and the orbits.

a) Crista galli
b) Cribriform plate
c) Middle nasal concha
d) Perpendicular plate
e) Orbital plate

d) Perpendicular plate

Turbinate bone.

a) Crista galli
b) Cribriform plate
c) Middle nasal concha
d) Perpendicular plate
e) Orbital plate

c) Middle nasal concha

Named after the conch shells found on warm ocean beaches, protrude into the nasal cavity.
concha = shell

Orbital area.

a) Crista galli
b) Cribriform plate
c) Middle nasal concha
d) Perpendicular plate
e) Orbital plate

e) Orbital plate

Olfactory bulb sits on this.

a) Crista galli
b) Cribriform plate
c) Middle nasal concha
d) Perpendicular plate
e) Orbital plate

b) Cribriform plate

The superior surface of the ethmoid is formed by the paired horizontal cribriform plates, which help form the roof of the nasal cavities and the floor of the anterior cranial fossa. The cribriform plates are punctured by tiny holes (cribr = sieve") called olfactory foramina that allow the filaments of the olfactory nerves to pass from the smell receptors in the nasal cavities to the brain.

Nasal concha

a) Crista galli
b) Cribriform plate
c) Middle nasal concha
d) Perpendicular plate
e) Orbital plate

d) Perpendicular plate

Rooster's comb

a) Crista galli
b) Cribriform plate
c) Middle nasal concha
d) Perpendicular plate
e) Orbital plate

a) Crista galli

crista galli = rooster's comb
A triangular process.

Anchor the pterygoid muscles.
OGHSP
The Sphenoid bone.
The bat shaped sphenoid bone spans the width of the middle cranial fossa. the spenoid bone is considered the keystone of the cranium because it forms a central wedge that articulates with all other cranial bones.
Consist of a cenral body and three pairs of processes.
sphen = wedge

a) Optic canal
b) Greater wing
c) Hypophyseal fossa of sella turcica
d) Superior orbital fissure
e) Pterygoid process

e) Pterygoid process

Passway for the optic nerve.

a) Optic canal
b) Greater wing
c) Hypophyseal fossa of sella turcica
d) Superior orbital fissure
e) Pterygoid process

a) optic canal

Encloses hypophysis.

a) Optic canal
b) Greater wing
c) Hypophyseal fossa of sella turcica
d) Superior orbital fissure
e) Pterygoid process

c) Hypophyseal fossa of sella turcica

Forms parts of the middle cranial fossa, dorsal walls of the orbits, and external walls of the skull.

a) Optic canal
b) Greater wing
c) Hypophyseal fossa of sella turcica
d) Superior orbital fissure
e) Pterygoid process

b) Greater wing

Allow cranial nerves the control eye movements to enter the orbit.

a) Optic canal
b) Greater wing
c) Hypophyseal fossa of sella turcica
d) Superior orbital fissure
e) Pterygoid process

d) Superior orbital fissue

These very small bones are at the medial wall of each orbit.

a) Sphenoid
b) Lacrimal bones
c) Temporal bones
d) Maxillae

b) Lacrimal bones
"lacrima = tears"

The delicate fingernail-shaped lacrimal bones contribute to the medial walls of each orbit.

The lacrimal fossa houses the lacrimal sac, part of the passageway that allows tears to drain from the eye surface into the nasal cavity.

This bone has a passageway into the nasal cavity.

Failure of these anterior bones to fuse causes a condition known as cleft palate.

a) Sphenoid
b) Lacrimal bones
c) Temporal bones
d) Maxillae

d) Maxillae
= "jaws"

The maxillary bones or maxillae are fused medially. They form the upper jaw and the central portion of the facial skeleton. All facial bones excep the mandible articulate with the maxillae. Hence, the maxillae are considered the keystone bones of the facial skeleton.

This bone houses the apparatus of the internal and middle ear.

a) Sphenoid
b) Lacrimal bones
c) Temporal bones
d) Maxillae

c) Temporal bones

This bone is wing-shaped and extends behind the eyes and forms part of the florr of the craial vault.

a) Sphenoid
b) Lacrimal bones
c) Temporal bones
d) Maxillae

a) Sphenoid

The bones that contain the teeth.

a) Sphenoid
b) Lacrimal bones
c) Temporal bones
d) Maxillae

d) Maxillae

This bone has a passageway into the nasal cavity.

a) Sphenoid
b) Lacrimal bones
c) Temporal bones
d) Maxillae

b) Lacrimal bones

The sella turcica is a portion of this bone.

The superior surface of the body bears a saddle-shaped prominence, the sella turcica, meaning "Turk's saddle". The seat of this saddle, called the hypophyseal fossa, forms a snug enclosure for the pituitary gland (hypophysis).

a) Sphenoid
b) Lacrimal bones
c) Temporal bones
d) Maxillae

a) Sphenoid

The fingers have three of these bones and the thumb has only two.

a) Phalanges
b) Radius
c) Humerus

a) Phalanges

= fingers

This bone articulates with the glenoid fossa.

a) Phalanges
b) Radius
c) Humerus

c) Humerus

Upper arm.

glenoid = "pit-shaped"
This glenoid cavity (a small shallow fossa) articulates with the humerus of the arm, forming the shoulder joint.

Forearm bone that articulates with most of the carpals.

a) Phalanges
b) Radius
c) Humerus

b) Radius

Larger bone of the lower arm.

These bones have the thickest centrum with short blund spinous processes.

a) Axis
b) Coccyx
b) Thoracic vertebrae
d) Atlas
e) Lumbar vertebrae

e) Lumbar vertebrae

The fused rudimentary tailbone.

a) Axis
b) Coccyx
b) Thoracic vertebrae
d) Atlas
e) Lumbar vertebrae

b) Coccyx

A circle of bone that articulates superiorly with the occipital condyles.

a) Axis
b) Coccyx
b) Thoracic vertebrae
d) Atlas
e) Lumbar vertebrae

d) Atlas

The atlas (C1) has no body and no spinous process. Essentially, it is a ring of bone consisting of anterior and posterior arches and a lateral mass on each side. Each lateral mass has articular facets on both its superior and inferior surfaces. The superior articular facets receive the occipital condyles of the skull the "carry" the skull. The inferior articular facets form joints withe the axis (C2) below.

The bones have articular facets for the ribs.

a) Axis
b) Coccyx
b) Thoracic vertebrae
d) Atlas
e) Lumbar vertebrae

b) Thoracic vertebrae

Allows the head to nod "yes".

a) Axis
b) Coccyx
b) Thoracic vertebrae
d) Atlas
e) Lumbar vertebrae

b) Atlas

Just as Atlas supported the heavens in Greek mythology. These joints allow you to nod "yes".

Allows the head to shake "no".

a) Axis
b) Coccyx
b) Thoracic vertebrae
d) Atlas
e) Lumbar vertebrae

d) Axis

The axis, which has a body and the other typical vertebral processes, is not as specialized as the atlas. Its only unusual feature is the knoblike dens projecting superiorly from its body. the dens is actually the "mising" body of the atlas, which fuses with the axis during embryonic development. Cradled in the anterior arch of the atlas by the transverse ligaments, the dens acts as a pivot for the rotation of the atlas. Hence, this joint allows you to rotate your head from side to side to indicate "no".

dens = tooth

Lambdoid suture.

a) Connects occipital and temporal bones.

b) Connects occipital and parietal bones.

c) Connects temporal and parietal bones.

d) Conntects parietal and frontal bones.

e) Connects right and left parietal bones.

b) Connects occipital and parietal bones.

Sagittal suture.

a) Connects occipital and temporal bones.

b) Connects occipital and parietal bones.

c) Connects temporal and parietal bones.

d) Conntects parietal and frontal bones.

e) Connects right and left parietal bones.

e) Connects right and left parietal bones

Squamosal suture.

a) Connects occipital and temporal bones.

b) Connects occipital and parietal bones.

c) Connects temporal and parietal bones.

d) Conntects parietal and frontal bones.

e) Connects right and left parietal bones.

c) Connects temporal and parietal bones

Coronal suture

a) Connects occipital and temporal bones.

b) Connects occipital and parietal bones.

c) Connects temporal and parietal bones.

d) Conntects parietal and frontal bones.

e) Connects right and left parietal bones.

d) Connects parietal and frontal bones

Occipitomastoid suture.

a) Connects occipital and temporal bones.

b) Connects occipital and parietal bones.

c) Connects temporal and parietal bones.

d) Conntects parietal and frotal bones.

e) Connects right and left parietal bones.

a) Connects occipital and temporal bones.

A Colle's fracture is a break in the distal end of the radius.


True / False

True

All of the bones of the skull, except the mandibl, are united by sutures and are therefore "immovable".


True / False

True

The foramen magnum goes through the occipital bone.


True / False

True

The mastoid sinuses are located at a position in the skull where they are usually free from infections.


True / False

False

The vertebral column is held in place primarily by the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments.


True / False

True

Ribs numbered 11 and 12 are true ribs because they have "no" anterior attachments.


True / False

False

The most common site of fracture in humerus is the anatomical neck.


True / False

False

The layman's name for the scapula is the collarbone.


True / False

False

A temporal bone protusion riddled with sinuses is the styloid process.


True / False

False

Costal cartilages join most ribs to the sternum.


True / False

True

The tubercle of a rib articulates with the transverse process of a vertebrae.


True / False

True

In women of childbrearing age, the dimensions of the true pelvis are of utmost importance.


True / False

True

The term "vertebrochchondral ribs" refers to the ribs that attach to each other before they attach to the sternum.


True / False

True

In the anatomical position, the lateral forearm bone is the radius.


True / False

True

The vomer forms part of the nasal septum.


True / False

True

The cranial vault of the skull is also called the calvaria.


True / False

True

The lacrimal bones contain openings that allow the tear ducts to pass.


True / False

True

The largest and strongest bone of the face is the maxilla.


True / False

False

There are seven cervical, twelve thoracic and five lumbar vertebrae.


7-12-5

True / False

True

Lordosis affects the thoracic vertebrae.


True / False

False

All vertebrae possess a body, a spine, and transverse foramina.


True / False

False

The dens articulates with the axis.


True / False

False

The pituitary gland is housed in a saddlelike depression in the temporal bone called the sella turcica.


True / False

False

The ischium articulates with both the ilium and the pubis.


True / False

True

Which forms the larges portion of the coxal bone?


a) ischium
b) pubis
c) ilium
d) pelvic

c) ilium

The membranous areas between the cranial bones of the fetal skull are called ___.


a) areolas
b) foramina
c) sutures
d) fontanelles

d) fontanelles

What makes up the axial skeleton?


a) the skull, vertebral column, and the pelvis

b) arms, legs, hands, and feet

c) the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage

d) shoulder and pelvic girdles

c) the skull, vertebral column, and the rib cage

The ethmoid bone is composed of all of the following "except" the ___.


a) superior nasal concha

b) crista galli

c) cribriform plate

d) inferior nasal concha

d) inferior nasal concha

Which vertebra does "not" have a body?


a) last lumbar

b) axis

c) atlas

d) last cervical

c) atlas

the suture that connects the two parietal bones together is the ___.


a) coronal

b) sagittal

c) lambdoid

d) squamosal

b) sagittal

The pituitary gland is housed in the ___.


a) vomer

b) sinuses of the ethmoid

c) sella turcica of the sphenoid

d) foramen lacerum

c) sella turcica of the sphenoid

The hyoid bone is unique because it ___.


a) is the only bone that does not articulate with any other bone

b) is shaped like a plow

c) is covered with mucosa

d) has no specific function

a) is the only bone that does not articulate with any other bone

Along with support, the anterior ligament of the vertebral column also acts to ___.


a) hold the discs in place

b) prevent hyperextension of the spine

c) hold the spine erect

d) protect the spinal cord

b) prevent hyperextension of the spine

What is the major function of the intervertebral discs?


a) absorb shock

b) string the vertebrae together

c) prevent injuries

d) Prevent hyperextension

a) absorb shock

Paranasal sinuses are found in which of these facial bones?


a) zygomatic

b) nasal conchae

c) vomer

d) maxiallae

d) maxiallae

Which of the following is an abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column often seen in the thoracic region?


a) kyphosis

b) scoliosis

c) lordosis

d) swayback

b) scoliosis

Which of the following phrases best describes the function of the verteral curves?


a) to provide resilience and flexibility

b) to accommodate muscle attachment

c) to improve cervical center of gravity

d) to accommodate the weight of the pelvic girdle

a) to provide resilience and flexibility

Which part of the vertebral column receives the most stress by bearing most of the weight of the body?


a) the sacrum

b) the cervical region

c) the lumbar region

d) the sacral promontory

c) the lumbar region

Which of the following statements is true regarding the location of the center of gravity of the body?


a) It is 1 cm posterior to the sacral promontory.

b) It is 2 cm anterior to the sacral foramina.

c) It is 1 cm lateral to the sacroiliac joints of the pelvis.

d) It is 1 cm superior to the median sacral crest.

a) It is 1 cm posterior to the sacral promontory.

Thoracic vertebrae differ from the other vertebrae in that they have ___.


a) no transverse processes

b) facets for attachment of ribs

c) transverse foramina

d) no intervertebral discs

b) facets for attachment of ribs

What is the major function of the axial skeleton?


a) give the body resilience

b) profice an attachment point for muscles that allow movement

c) provide central support for the body and protect internal organs

d) provide a space for the major digestive organs

c) provide central support for the body and protect internal organs

The antebrachium is composed of which of the following two bones?


a) the radius and the ulna

b) the humerus and the clavicle

c) The scapula and the clavicle

d) the humerus and the radius

a) the radius and the ulna

The "true wrist" or carpus consists of ___.


a) a group of eight shor bones united by ligaments

b) the phalanges

c) the styloid processes of the radius and ulna

d) the metacarpals

a) a group of eight shor bones united by ligaments

Which bone is in direct contact with the first metatarsal?


a) medial cuneiform

b) lateral cuneiform

c) cuboid

d) calceneus

a) medial cuneiform

Choose the statement that is most correct about orbits.


a) The orbits are formed of both facial and cranial bones.

b) The orbits contain only facial bones.

c) The orbits contain only cranial bones.

d) The orbits are made entirely of cartilage.

a) The orbits are formed of both facial and cranial bones.

Which of the following is true about paranasal sinuses?


a) Paranasal sinuses open intothe oral cavity.

b) Paranasal sinuses enhance the resonance of the voice and lighten the skull.

c) Paranasal sinuses contain passages acting as one-way valves.

d) Paranasal sinuses are found in maxillary, ethmoid, and lacrimal bones.

b) Paranasal sinuses enhance the resonance of the voice and lighten the skull.

The superior orbital fissure is formed in the sphenoid bone, whereas the inferior orbital fissure is formed between the sphenoid and ___.


a) maxialla

b) zygomatic

c) ethmoid

d) lacrimal

a) maxialla

Which of the following is the abnormal curve often seen in pregnant women as they attempt to preserve their center of gravity toward the end of the pregnancy?


a) kyphosis

b) hunchback

c) scoliosis

d) lordosis

d) lordosis

How are thoracic vertebrae 11 and 12 different from the other vertebrae?


a) The orientation of the articular processes is different from all the other thoracic vertebrae.

b) The transverse processes do not have facets that articulate with the tubercles of the ribs.

c) There are two foramina on vertebrae 11 and 12.

d) The spinous processes are directed parallel with the centrum.

b) The transverse processes do not have facets that articulate with the tubercles of the ribs.

Which bone contains diaphysis and epiphysis areas, a tuberosity near its middle, and is proportionally more compact than spongy bone?


a) parietal bone

b) talus

c) humerus

d) cervical vertebra

c) humerus

The superior nasal concha is a part of which bone?


a) vomer

b) ethmoid

c) sphenoid

d) maxialla

b) ethmoid

The articulation that most closely resembles a hinge in the body involves which bones?


a) humerus - ulna

b) humerus - radius

c) femur - tibia

d) femur - fibula

a) humerus - ulna

The pelvic girdle does "not" include the ___.


a) sacrum

b) ilium

c) ischium

d) pubis

a) sacrum

Which of the following bones is "not" weight bearing?


a) femur

b) tibia

c) fibula

d) talus

c) fibula

Which portion of the fibula articulates with the talus?


a) calcaneus

b) head

c) medial maleolus

d) lateral maleolus

d) lateral maleolus

The heel bone is called the ___.

calcaneus

The lateral condyle of the femur articulates with the lateral condyle of the ___.

tibia

The medial condyle of the femur articulates with the medial condyle of the ___.

tibia

The largest foramen in the body is the ___ formen.

obturator

The smallest short bone in the hand is the ___.

pisiform

The styloid process of the ___ points to the thumb.

radius

The lrge fossa on the anterior aspect of the scapula is the ___.

subscapular fossa

Only the ___ vertebrae have transverse foramina.

cervical

The ___ is the primary bone in the septum of the nose.

vomer

Your "cheekbone" is mostly formed from the ___ bone.

zygomatic

The ___ is a spinous process that is visible throught the skin and can be used as a landmark for counting the vertebrae.

vertebra prominens

What function of the lumbar curvature?

It positions the weight of the trunk over the body's center of gravity, thus providing optimal balance when standing.

Which vertebral curvature abnormality is the most serious? Why?

Scoliosis is the most serious abnormality, due to the pressure that can be placed on the lungs and resulting breathing difficulties.

What is the purpose of the vertebral curvatures?

Their purpose is to increase the resilience and flexibility of the spine, allowing it to function like a spring rather than a rigid rod.

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