micro #11 vocab

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micro #11 vocab

sterilization

the destruction of all microbial life
usually heat (moist)
usually inanimate objects
sometimes use sterilants

disinfection

destroys most microbial life, reduces contamination on inanimate surfaces
use of physical or chemical process
doesn't destroy endospores
removes toxins

antisepsis

destroys nmost microbial life, reducing contamination on living surface

decontamination

the mechanical removal of most microbes from an animate or inanimate surface

primary target of microbial control

microorganisms in environment capable of causing infection or spoilage

sepsis

the growth of microorganisms in the blood & other tissues

asepsis

any practice that prevents the entry of infectious agents to sterile tissues

bactericide

chemical that destroys bacteria (not endospores)

fungicide

chemical that can kill fungal spores, hypae & yeasts

virucide

chemical that inactivates (not kill because not technically alive)virsues

sporicide

can destroy bacterial endospores

germicide and microbicide

chemical agents that kill microorganisms

bacteristatic

prevent the growth of bacteria

fungistatic

inhibit fungal growth

decontanimation: sanitation

any cleasing technique that mechanically removes MO to reduce contamination to safe levles

decontamination: sanitizer

compound such as soap or cleasner

decontamination: sanitary

may not be free from microbes but safe for normal use

decontamination: degermation

reduces the numbers of microbes on the human skin

microbial death

1. various cell structures become dysfunctional & the entire cell sustains irreversible damage
2. no longer functions under ideal environmental conditions

thermal death time

the shortest length of time required to kill all test microbes at a specified temperature

thermal death point

the lowest temperature required to kill all microbes in a sample in 10 minutes

moist heat methods

1. steam under pressure (autoclave)
2.pasteurication = heat is applied to liquids. doesn't kill endospores or thermoduric microbes
3. boiling water - for disinfection not sterilization

dry heat methods

1. incineration
2. dry oven - usually electric oven. used for heat resistant items that do not sterilze well with moist heat

desiccation

dehydrate/desiccate vegatative cell when directly exposed to normal room air

lycophilization

a combo of freezing & drying used to preserve MO and other cells in a viable state for many years

radiation

energy emitted from atomic activities and dispersed at high velocity thru matter or space
ex. gamma rays, x-rays, UV radiation

ionizing radiation

is the radiation ejects orbital electrons from an atom causing ions to form. can go thru barrier

nonionizing radiation

exictes atoms by raising them to a higher energy state but does not ionize them

tinctures

solutions dissolved in pure alcohol or water-alcohol mixtures

phenol coefficient

compares a chemical's antimicrobial properties to those of phenol - make sure it doesn't cause harm

Phenol: high concentrations

cellular poisons -toxins

Phenol: lower concentrations

inactive certain critical enzymes systems - work at protein level

oligodynamic action

having antimicrobial effects in exceedingly small amounts

Prions

#1 most resistant.
made out of proteins. denature & then go right back to the shape. renaturing ability. influence other proteins

endospores of bacteria

#2
two membrane - peptidoglycan, many protein coats & possible exosporium

mycobacteria

#3
waxy mycolic acid

gram-negative bacteria

#4
outer membrane & porins

viruses without envelopes

#5
capsid (made out of protein) harder to break apart then cell membrane

gram positive bacteria

#6
outer membrane is peptidoglycan which is easy remove

viruses with lipid envelope

#7
envelope easy to break and then can into cell

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