APUSH Terms 8

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Jim Crow laws

The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

Separate but equal doctrine created. Race-based segregation is constitutional

"separate but equal"

Supreme Court doctrine established in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson. Allowed state-required racial segregation in places of public accommodation as long as the facilities were equal

Booker T. Washington

African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.

W.E.B. Du Bois

fought for African American rights. Helped to found Niagra Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights. This movement later led to the establishment of the NAACP

Atlanta Compromise

argument put forward by Booker T. Washington that African-americans should not focus on civil rights or social equality but concentrate on economic self-improvement.

Niagara Movement

in 1905 Dubois started this movement at Niagara Falls, and four years later joined with white progressives sympathetic to their cause to form NAACP, the new organization later led to the drive for equal rights.

poll tax

a tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote

literacy test

A test given to persons to prove they can read and write before being allowed to register to vote

grandfather clause

A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867.

Frederick Law Olmstead

father of American landscape architecture, famous for designing many well-known urban parks, including Central Park and Prospect Park in New York City (Read Devil in the White City!!!)

Dawes Severalty Act

Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes

social gospel

the idea that churches should address social issues, predicting that socialism would be the logical outcome of Christianity

Jane Addams

1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.

Hull House

Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.

settlement house

a house where immigrants came to live upon entering the U.S. At Settlement Houses, instruction was given in English and how to get a job, among other things. The first Settlement House was the Hull House, which was opened by Jane Addams in Chicago in 1889. These centers were usually run by educated middle class women. The houses became centers for reform in the women's and labor movements.

Carrie A. Nation

crazy hatchet lady who smashed up bars, axe-wielding psychopath, temperance movement, worked for Prohibition in defense of the family

Susan B. Anthony

social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation

Samuel Clemons

Real name of Mark Twain

Thomas Nast

Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.

Stephen Crane

wrote Red Badge of Courage; American novelist, short story writer, poet, journalist, raised in NY and NJ; style and technique: naturalism, realism, impressionism; themes: ideals v. realities, spiritual crisis, fears

Willa Cather

wrote My Antonia; prolific during the 1920s, reputation as one of the most important post-Civil War American authors

Turner thesis

The historian Frederick Jackson Turner argued that the frontier was the key factor in the development of American democracy and institutions; he maintained that the frontier served as a "safety valve" during periods of economic crisis.

Sand Creek massacre

In Colorado territory in 1864, U.S army colonel John M. Chivington led a surprise attack on a peaceful Cheyenne settlement along Sand Creek River. The Cheyenne under Chief Black kettle tried to surrender. First he waved the America Flag and the White flag of surrender. Chivington ignored the gestures. The U.S army killed about 200 Cheyenne during the conflict

Little Bighorn

a battle in Montana near the Little Bighorn River between United States cavalry under Custer and several groups of Native Americans (1876)

Chief Joseph

Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations

Wounded Knee

In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.

Ghost dance

Ritual that celebrated a hoped for day of reckoning when settlers would disappear, buffalo would return, and Natives would reunite with ancestors

open range

A vast area of grassland owned by the government where ranchers could graze their herds for free

Treaty of Fort Laramie

Treaty under which government agreed to close Bozeman trail, and Sioux agreed to live on reserve along Missouri River. The Sioux were forced into this treaty. The treaty was only a temporary to warfare between Native Americans and Whites.

Wyatt Earp

Former sheriff of Dodge City met with his 2 brothers, who were deputies, and killed several outlaw gunment in Tombstone, Arizona

McKinley Tariff

1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

Required the government to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion each month for use as currency.

recall

a request by the manufacturer of a defective product to return the product (as for replacement or repair)

initiative

readiness to embark on bold new ventures

referendum

The name given to the political process in which the general public votes on an issue of public concern.

"old immigrants"

These were immigrants that came during the first phase of immigration (1840s) who were usually Irish and German. These people were second generation, which meant that they have assimilated into America, gotten into politics, and opened their own shops. Their position in government and hypocritical nature made them hostile to new immigrants, passing laws against them.

"new immigrants"

These were immigrants that were recently arriving into America. These were unskilled laborers that filled the jobs no one else wanted.
, Immigrants of Italian, Slavic, Greek, Jewish, and Armenian descent - South and East Europeans, 1880's

Jacob Coxey

A socialist American politician, who ran for elective office several times in Ohio. Supported and helped establish paper moneylead protest of unemployment from Panic of 1893

Election of 1896

Republican William McKinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Bryan was the nominee of the Democrats, the Populist Party, and the Silver Republicans.Economic issues, including bimetallism, the gold standard, Free Silver, and the tariff, were crucial.

William McKinley

25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist

Mark Hanna

business mogul, financial power behind McKinley's nomination and his subsequent campaign for president; promised a strong and prosperous industrial nation; a mass media genius

William Jennings Bryan

United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)

Alfred Thayer Mahan

a United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. His ideas on the importance of sea power influenced navies around the world, and helped prompt naval buildups before World War I. Several ships were named USS Mahan, including the lead vessel of a class of destroyers. His research into naval History led to his most important work, The Influence of Seapower Upon History,1660-1783, published in 1890

Joseph Pulitzer

Hungarian-born journalistic tycoon who lead the techniques of sensationalism, especially with his New York World. Published the first comic, the Yellow Kid.

William Randolph Hearst

Newspaper publisher who adopted a sensationalist style. His reporting was partly responsible for igniting the Spanish-American War.

yellow journalism

Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers

de Lome letter

Spanish Ambassador's letter that was illegally removed from the U.S. Mail and published by American newspapers. It criticized President McKinley in insulting terms. Used by war hawks as a pretext for war in 1898.

U.S.S. Maine

"start" of the Span-Amer war; exploded off the coast of cuba and it was blamed on spanish torpedoes; heightened by yellow journalists

Teller Amendment

This Amendment was drafter by Henry M. Teller which declared that the US had no desire for control in Cuba & pledged the US would leave the island alone.

Theodore Roosevelt

26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War

Rough RIders

Volunteer regiment of US Cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt during the Spanish American War

Treaty of Paris 1898

The treaty that concluded the Spanish American War, Commissioners from the U.S. were sent to Paris on October 1, 1898 to produce a treaty that would bring an end to the war with Spain after six months of hostilitiy. From the treaty America got Guam, Puerto Rico and they paid 20 million dollars for the Philipines. Cuba was freed from Spain.

Platt Amendment

Allowed the United States to intervene in Cuba and gave the United States control of the naval base at Guantanamo Bay.

Foraker Act

law passed by congress in 1900's under which the US gave Puerto Ricans a limited say in government

Insular cases

These were court cases dealing with islands/countries that had been recently annexed and demanded the rights of a citizen. These Supreme Court cases decided that the Constitution did not always follow the flag, thus denying the rights of a citizen to Puerto Ricans and Filipinos.

balance of power

distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong

dollar diplomacy

Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries

Roosevelt Corollary

Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force

sphere of influence

area in which a foreign nation had special trading privileges and made laws for its own citizens

Boxer Rebellion

1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops

open door policy

A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.

imperialism

A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.

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