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True

NREM sleep normally exhibits four distinct stages, which appear to alternate.

True

Petit mal seizures found in children generally go away with age.

False

NREM sleep episodes are frequently associated with erection of the penis.

False

A flat EEG is a good indication of deep sleep.

False

Theta waves are a brain wave pattern that can be seen during deep sleep and during anesthesia.

True

One disorder of the substantia nigra is Parkinsonʹs disease.

True

Cell bodies of the somatic motor neurons of the spinal nerves are located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord.

False

Meningitis is the most accurate term for inflammation of neurons.

True

The spinal cord ends at the level of L1.

True

Cerebrospinal fluid circulates within the ventricles of the brain and in the subarachnoid space outside the brain.

True

The terms fainting and syncope describe the same thing.

False

The RAS is comprised of specific pathways primarily in the limbic system.

False

Nondeclarative memories preserve the context in which they are learned.

True

The first obvious sign that the nervous system is forming in the embryo is the thickening of the surface ectoderm to form the neural plate.

True

The left cerebral hemisphere is usually dominant.

True

The limbic system acts as our emotional, or affective, brain.

False

The canal connecting the third and fourth ventricles and running through the midbrain is the foramen of Monro.

False

Commissural fibers form the corpus striatum.

True

A disturbance of posture, muscle tremors at rest, and uncontrolled muscle contraction are all symptoms of damage to the basal nuclei.

False

Projection fibers in the brain connect the right and left hemispheres.

True

Most of the ascending and descending pathways to and from the brain cross over from one side of the body to the other.

True

The primary visual cortex contains a map of visual space.

True

One functional center found within the medulla oblongata is a respiratory center involved in the control of the rate and depth of breathing.

False

Sorting of sensory information and relaying it to the appropriate cerebral sensory area occurs in the hypothalamus.

True

Sensory areas of the cortex for the genitals are located deep in the postcentral gyrus.

True

Embryonic damage to the mesencephalon could result in improper formation of the midbrain.

are involved in the emotional aspects of perception

The nonspecific ascending pathways ________.

hypothalamus

The superchiasmatic nucleus is found in the ________.

pons

Nuclei of cranial nerves V, VI, and VII are found in the ________.

cerebellar white matter

The arbor vitae refers to ________.

midbrain, medulla, and pons

The brain stem consists of the ________.

temporal lobe

The primary auditory cortex is located in the ________.

carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum

Spinocerebellar tracts ________.

inside, white matter on the outside, and a ventral motor root

The spinal cord has gray matter on the ________.

arachnoid and pia

The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges?

medulla

The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the ________.

the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord

Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in ________.

longitudinal fissure

The fissure separating the cerebral hemispheres is the ________.

emotional impact

The limbic association area of the multimodal association areas provides our ________.

sulcus

A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called a ________.

is formed mostly by the choroid plexuses

The cerebrospinal fluid ________.

the spinal cord may be affected

If the posterior portion of the neural tube failed to develop properly ________.

frontal from parietal

The central sulcus separates which lobes?

lateral spinothalamic

Neural tracts that convey life-saving information to the brain concerning burning pain would be ________.

fiber tracts

Which of these would you not find in the cerebral cortex?

is the thermostat of the body since it regulates temperature

The hypothalamus ________.

myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers

The white matter of the spinal cord contains ________.

rubrospinal

A lateral tract in the spinal cord would be ________.

paraplegia

An individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1. This would result in ________.

upper motor neurons

Spastic paralysis suggests involvement of the ________.

gyri

Ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres are called ________.

lateral sulcus

The frontal lobe is separated from the temporal lobe by the ________.

structurally distinct cortical areas

Brodmannʹs numbering refers to ________.

pyramidal and corticospinal

Two terms for the massive motor tracts serving voluntary movement are ________.

visual association area

An individual who could trace a picture of a bicycle with his or her finger but could not recognize it as a bicycle is most likely to have sustained damage to the ________.

is considered a motor speech area

Brocaʹs area ________.

corresponding areas of the two hemispheres

The function of commissures is to connect ________.

metabolic waste such as urea

The blood-brain barrier is effective against ________.

substantia nigra

Which of the following is not part of the basal nuclei?

caudate nucleus

All of the following are structures of the limbic system except the ________.

third ventricle

Which of the following is not a midbrain structure?

consolidation

The process of linking new facts with old facts already stored in the memory bank is called ________.

indicates a normal frequency range of 1-30 Hz

An electroencephalogram ________.

reticular formation

The brain area that regulates activities that control the state of wakefulness or alertness of the cerebral cortex is the ________.

red blood cells

Which of the following would you not find in normal cerebrospinal fluid?

temporary skeletal muscle paralysis, except for the extrinsic eye muscles

REM sleep is associated with ________.

slurred speech

Mr. Hom was injured in an accident that completely severed his spinal cord at the level of T12. You would expect to find all of the following except ________.

loss of proprioception

Injury to the hypothalamus may result in all of the following except ________.

contains the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts

White matter of the spinal cord ________.

Despite some neuronal loss, changing synaptic connections support additional learning throughout life.

Which statement about aging is most accurate?

motor-anterior

Which association is most accurate?

reflects the number of neurons firing synchronously

Brain wave amplitude ________.

mammillary body

Declarative memory is not stored in the ________.

has symptoms that are the opposite of Parkinsonʹs disease

Huntingtonʹs disease ________.

skill learning

The corpus striatum plays a special role in ________.

is facilitated by the release of norepinephrine

Storing information in long-term memory ________.

vestibular nuclei

Important nuclei of the indirect (multineural) system that receive impulses from the equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear and help to maintain balance by varying muscle tone of postural muscles are the ________.

medulla

Which of the following structures is probably not directly involved in memory?

visceral sensory area

The area of the cortex that is responsible for sensations of the full bladder and the feeling that your lungs will burst when you hold your breath too long is the ________.

Coma is defined as total unresponsiveness to stimuli for a long period of time.

Which statement about coma is true?

Parkinsonʹs disease

Tremor at rest, shuffling gait, stooped posture, and expressionless face are characteristics of ________.

concussion

Which is the mildest consequence of traumatic brain injury?

is the ability to learn specific information

Declarative memory ________.

red nuclei

Which of the following is/are involved with motor activity (either initiation or coordination)?

Stage 4 sleep increases in old age.

Which statement is not true?

Epilepsy is often genetically induced but also frequently caused by head trauma, stroke, infection, and tumor.

Which statement about epilepsy is most accurate?

cerebral cortex

White matter (myelinated fibers) is found in all of the following locations, with the exception of the ________.

thalamus

Second-order neurons of both the specific and nonspecific ascending pathways terminate in the ________.

premotor cortex

Loss of ability to perform skilled motor activities such as piano playing, with no paralysis or weakness in specific muscles, might suggest damage to the ________.

Theta

________ waves are not normal for adults but are common for children.

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