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Lab session 10: SG11: Vision, hearing and equilibrium, olfaction and taste

optic tract

contains fibers from both eyes, some have crossed from optic chiasma and some have not

lateral rectus

moves eye laterally; CN 6 - abducens

medial rectus

moves eye medially; CN 3 - oculomotor

superior rectus

elevates eye and turns it medially; CN 3 - oculomotor

inferior rectus

depresses eye and turns it medially; CN 3 - oculomotor

inferior oblique

elevates eye and turns it laterally; CN 3 - oculomotor

superior oblique

depresses eye and turns it laterally; CN 4 - trochlear

interdependence of taste and smell

what is tasted is actually smelled because chemoreceptors in both the nose and mouth are stimulated

emmetropic

normal vision

myopic

nearsighted

hyperopic

farsighted

ceruminous glands

wax secreting glands

oval window

transmits vibration of eadrums to fluids of inner ear

osseous labyrinth

bony chambers in inner ear

perilymph

aqueous fluid in osseous labyrinth

membranous labyrinth

follows contours of osseous labyrinth

endolymph

viscous fluid in membranous labyrinth

vestibular apparatus

consists of utricle and saccule

cochlear duct

separates cochlear cavity into upper and lower chambers

scala vestibule

upper chamber in cochlear duct; vestibular duct

scala tympani

lower chamber in cochlear duct; tympanic duct

round window

a membrane that bounds the scala tympani

spiral organ of corti

contains receptors for hearing

mechanism of dynamic equilibrium

involves the semicircular canals, which are oriented in three planes; horizontal, frontal, and sagittal

ampulla

an enlarged region at the base of each semicircular duct

crista ampullaris

a receptor region that consists of a tuft of hair cells covered with a cupula

cupula

a gelatinous cap on the crista ampullaris

mechanism of static equilibrium

located in the vestibule; provides information on which way is up or down, and linear and straightforward changes in speed

maculae

sensory receptors that occur in the utricle and saccule of the inner ear

hair cells

cells of maculae that are sensitive to linear movements

olfactory supporting cells

non-sensory epithelial cells that surround specialized receptor cells in the olfactory epithelium

olfactory receptor cells

bipolar neurons whose olfactory cilia extend outward from the epithelium

olfactory cilia

located on olfactory receptor cells and extend outward

taste buds

receptors for sense of taste; located on top of fungiforms and sides of circumvallate papillae

gustatory cells

neuroepithelial cells located in the taste bud and are the actual receptor cells for taste

basal cells

another type of epithelial gustatory cell

papillae

three types: foliate papillae, fugiform papillae and circumvallate papillae

suspensory ligament of eye

connect ciliary body to the eye's lens

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