Chapter 7 The Skeleton

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80

how many bones make up the axial skeleton?

three

How many regions is the axial skeleton broken into?

skull, vertebral column, and bony thorax

What three regions is the axial skeleton broken into?

skull

Wht is the body's most complex bony structure?

cranium and facial bones

What forms the skull?

skull

What is formed by the cranium and facial bones?

cranium

What protects the brain and is the site of attachment for the head and neck muscles?

facial bones

What supplies the framework of the face, the sense organs, and the teeth?

Facial Bones

What provides openings for the passage of air and food?

facial bones

What anchors the facial muscles of expression?

8

How many cranial bones are there?

2 parietal, 2 temporal, frontal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethomoid

What are the 8 cranial bones?

cranial bones

What are thin and remarkably strong for their weight?

Frontal Bone

What forms the anterior portion of the cranium

anterior portion

What part of the cranium does the frontal bone form?

Frontal Bone

What articulates posteriorly with the parietal bones via the coronal suture?

Frontal Bone

What bones major markings include the supraorbital margins, the anterior cranial fossa, and the frontal sinuses (internal and lateral to the glabella)?

coronal suture

What suture separates the frontal and parietal bones?

muscle attachment

What is the styloid process for?

mastoid

What is a hard porous spongey bone behind the ear that branches out for muscle attachment?

Parietal bones

What form most of the superior and lateral aspects of the skull?

4 sutures

How many sutures mark the articulations of the parietal bones?

coronal suture

Which suture has articulation between parietal bones and frontal bones anteriorly?

Sagittal Suture

Which suture is where the right and left parietal bones meet superiorly?

Lambdoid Suture

Which suture is where parietal bones meet the occipital bone posteriorly?

Squamosal suture

Which suture is where the parietal and temporal bones meet?

squamous suture

What is the squamosal suture also known as?

occipital bone

What forms most of the skull's posterior wall and base?

Occipital

What bones major markings include the posterior cranial fossa, foramen magnum, occipital condyles, and the hypoglossal canal?

Occipital Condyle

Where does the head rest on the spine?

Occipital Bone

Which bone helps with our vision?

Temporal Bones

What forms the inferolateral aspects of the skull and parts of the cranial floor?

Temporal Bones

What is divided into four major regions-squamous, tympanic, mastoid, and petrous?

4

how many regions are the temporal bones broken into?

squamous, tympanic, mastoid, and petrous

What are the four regions of the temporal bones?

Temporal Bones

What bones major markings include the zygomatic, styloid, and mastoid processes, and the mandibular and middle cranial fossae?

Temporal Bones

Which bones major openings include the stylomastoid and jugular foramina, the external and internal auditory meatuses, and the carotid canal?

major blood vessels

WHat run through the jugular foramina?

Cheek bone

What is the zygomatic process also known as?

ear canal

What is the external acoustic meatus?

Sphenoid bone

What is a butterfly-shaped bone that spans the width of the middle cranial fossa?

Sphenoid Bone

What forms the central wedge that articulates with all other cranial bones?

Sphenoid Bone

What consists of a central body, greater wings, lesser wings, and pterygoid processes?

Sphenoid Bone

What bones major markings include the sella turcica, hypophyseal fossa, and the pterygoid processes?

Sphenoid Bone

What bones major openings include the foramina rotundum, ovale, and spinosum; the optic canals; and the superior orbital fissure?

foramen

What is a major area where blood vessels and nerves move through?

Optic Canal

What is it called where nerves for the eyes pass through?

Ethmoid Bone

WHat is most deep of the skull bones; lies between the sphenoid and nasal bones?

Sphenoid and nasal bones

What bones does the ethmoid bone lie between?

Ethmoid Bone

What forms most of the bony area between the nasal cavity and the orbits?

Ethmoid Bone

What bones major markings include the cribriform plate, crista galli, perpendicular plate, nasal conchae, and the ethmoid sinuses?

Offactory foramina

What contains the senses for smell?

Wormian Bones

What are tiny irregularly shaped bones that appear within sutures?

Facial BOnes

What are fourteen bones of which only the mandible and vomer are unpaired?

Mandible and Vomer

What are the only two facial bones that are unpaired?

14

How many bones make up the facial bones?

Facial Bones

What has the paired bones that are called the maxillae, the zygomatics, the nasals, lacrimals, palatines, and inferior conchae?

lacrimal glands

What makes up your tearducts?

mandible

What is the largest strongest bone of the face?

mandible

What bones major markings include the coronoid process, mandibular condyle, the alveolar margin, and the mandibular and mental foramina?

major nerve

What does the mental foramen contain?

palatine

What is the roof of the mouth called?

Maxillary Bones

What are medially fused bones that make up the upper jaw and the central portion of the facial skeleton?

Maxillary Bones

What are facial keystone bones that articulate with al other facial bones except the mandible?

Maxillary Bones

What bones major markings include palatine, frontal, and zygomatic processes, the alveolar margins, inferior orbital fisure, and the maxillary sinuses?

infraorbital foramen

What do the nerves from the eyes pass through?

Zygomatic Bones

What are irregularly shaped bones that form the prominences of the cheeks and the inferolateral margins of the orbits?

Nasal bones

What are thin medially fused bones that form the bridge of the nose?

Lacrimal bones

WHat contribute to the medial walls of the orbit and contain a deep groove called the lacrimal fossa that houses the lacrimal sac?

Palatine Bones

What are two bone plates that form portions of the hard palate, the posterolateral walls of the nasal cavity, and a small part of the orbits?

Vomer

What is a plow-shaped bone that forms part of the nsal septum?

Inferior nasal conchae

What are paried, curved bones in the nasal cavity that form part of the lateral walls of the nasal cavity?

forehead

Where is another spot sinuses are located besides in the nose?

Orbits

What are bony cavities in which the eyes are firmly encases and cushioned by fatty tissue?

Orbits

What are formed by parts of seven bones-frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, maxilla, palatine, lacrimal, and ethmoid?

Nasal Cavity

What are constructed of bone and hyaline cartilage?

Roof

What of the nasal cavity is formed by the cribriform plate of the ethmoid?

Lateral walls

What of the nasal cavity is formed by the superior and middle conchae of the ethmoid, the perpendicular plate of the palatine, and the inferior nasal conchae?

Floor

What of the nasal cavity is formed by palatine process of the maxillae and palatine bone?

resonates our voice

What is there spongy bone near our mouth?

Paranasal Sinuses

What is mucosa-lined, air-filled sacs found in five skull bones-the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and paired maxillary bones?

Paranasal Sinuses

What air enters the paransal sinuses from the nasal cavity and mucus drains into the nsala cavity from the sinuses?

Paranasal Sinuses

What lighten the skull and enhance the resonance of the voice?

Hyoid Bone

What is not actually part of the skull, but lies just inferior to the mandible in the anterior neck?

Hyoid Bone

What is the only bone of the body that does not articulate directly with another bone?

Hyoid Bone

What is the attachment point for neck muscles that rais and lower the larynx during swallowing and speech?

26

How many irregular shaped bone form the vertebral column?

Vertebral Column

What is formed from 26 irregular bones that are connected in such a way that a flexible curved structure results?

Cervical Vertebrae

What are the 7 bones of the neck?

Thoracic Vertebrae

What are the 12 bones of the torso?

Lumbar Vertebrae

What are the 5 bones of the lower back?

Sacrum

WHat is the bone inferior to the lumbar vertebrae that articulates with the hip bones?

Vertebral Column

What protects the spinal cord?

Vertebral column

What is a place of attachment for ribs and muscles of the neck and back?

cervical and lumbar

What part of the vertebral column does the posteriorly concave curvactures affect?

thoracic and sacral

What part of the vertebral column does the posteriorly convex curvatures affect?

scoliosis

What is the abnormal lateral curve also known as?

kyphosis

What is being hunchback also known as?

lordosis

What is being swayback also known as?

scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis

What are three examples of abnormal spine curvatures?

Vertebral column anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments

What are continuous bands down the front and back of the spine from the neck to the sacrum?

short ligaments

What connect adjoining vertebrae together?

because bones rub together

What are crushed disks very painful?

Intervertebral discs

What are cushion-like pads composed of two parts?

Nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus

what are the two parts of intervertebral discs?

Nucleus pulposus

WHat are inner gelatinous nucleus that gives the disc its elasticity and compressibility?

elasticity and compressibility

What two things does the nucleus pulposus give the intervertebral discs?

Annulus fibrosus

What surrounds the nucleus pulposus with a collar composed of collagen and firbrocartilage?

centrum

What is the body of the vertebrae also known as?

centrum

What is disc-shaped, and a weight bearing region of the vertebrae?

Vertebral arch

What is composed of pedicles and laminae that, along with the centrum, enclose the vertebral foramen?

Vertebral foramina

What make up the vertebral canal through which the spinal cord passes?

spinal cord

What pases through the vertebral foramen?

7

how many cervical vertebrae are there?

cervical vertebrae

What are the smallest, lightest vertebrae?

cervical vertebrae

What kind of vertebrae are distinguished with an oval body, short spinous processes, and large, triangular vertebral foramina?

a transverse foramen

What does each transverse process contain?

the atlas

What has no body and no spinous process?

the atlas

What consists of anterior and posterior arches, and two lateral masses?

the atlas

What are the superior surfaces of lateral masses articulate with the occipital condyles?

the axis

What has a body, spine, and vertebral arches as do other cervical vertebrae?

the dens (odontoid process)

What is unique to the axis?

odontoid process

What projects superiorly from the body and is cradled in the anterior arch of the atlas?

the dens

What is a pivot for the rotation of the atlas?

12

how many thoracic vertebrae are there?

thoracic vertebrae

What kind of vertebrae articulates with ribs?

Thoracic vertebrae

What kind of vertebraes major markings include two facets and two demifacets on the heart-shaped body, the circular vertebral foramen, transverse processes, and a long spinous process?

5

How many lumbar vertebrae are there?

Lumbar Vertebrae

What kind of vertebrae is located in the small of the back and have an enchanced weight-bearing function?

stability

What does the orientation of articular facets that lock the lumbar vertebrae together provide?

5

How many fused vertebrae make up the sacrum?

sacrum

What consists of five fused vertebrae which shape the posterior wall of the pelvis?

sacrum

what articulates with L5 superiorly, and with the auricular surfacs of the hip bones?

sacrum

what part of the vertebraes major markings include the sacral promontory, transverse lines, alae, dorsal sacral foramina, sacral Canal, and sacral hiatus?

4

How many fused vertebrae make up the coccyx?

Coccyx

what is made up of four (in some cases 3-5) fused vertebrae that articualte superiorly with the sacrum?

so your chest can expand whenyou breath

Why does the costal cartialge of the ribs have to be flexible?

thoracic cage

What is composed of the thoracic vertebrae dorsally, the ribs laterally, and the sternum and costal crtilages anteriorly?

bony thorax

What is the thoracic cage also known as?

bony thorax

What forms a protective cage around the heart, lungs, and great blood vessels?

Bony thorax

What supports the shoulder dirdles and upper limbs?

Bony thorax

What provides attachment for many neck, back, chest, and shoulder muscles?

Bony thorax

What uses intercostal muscles to lift and depress the thorax during breathing?

intercostal muscles

What does the bony thorax use to lift and depress the thorax during breathing?

breastbone

WHat is the sternum also known as?

sternum

What is a dagger shaped, flat bone that lies in the anterior midline of the thorax?

sternum

What results from the fusion of thre bones-the superior manubrium, the body, and the inferior xiphoid process?

sternum

What bones anatomical landmarks include the jugular (suprasternal) notch, the sternal angle, and the xiphisternal joint?

12

How many pairs of ribs form the flaring sides of the throacic cage?

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