a reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, work of art that the poet expects the reader to recognize
the implied or suggested meaning of a word; emotional overtones of the word; what it suggests to the reader
Figure of speech/figurative language
a word or phrase that identifies or describes something in a way that is not literally true, but may be meaningful in a deeper sense. Metaphor, simile, personification are considered this
an unexpected twist; the contrast between what is expected to happen and what actually occurs
a form of verbal irony; saying something and meaning the exact opposite, with the intent to be witty or insulting.
an object, person, place, event that stands for something more than itself; something concrete that stands for an abstract concept.
the writer's attitude toward the subject he or she is writing about or the speaker's attitude toward the subject he or she is talking about
poetry that tells a story; present dramatic events in a vivid way, using some of the same elements as short stories--for example, plot, characters, and dialogue
poetry that includes the techniques of drama. One or more characters speak to other characters that may or may not be present in the poem.
a poem in which one person addresses a listener or listeners who do not speak. The speaker reveals his or her character by commenting on a crucial problem or conflict in his or her life.
highly musical verse that expresses the emotions, attitudes, and observations of a single speaker its usually short and musical.
a word or phrases that appeals to one or more of the senses (sight, hearing, taste, touch, smell, movement)