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The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance

"like begets like"

the phrase that refers to the ability of organisms to asexually reproduce their own kind
ex. maple trees produce maple trees, etc.
does not apply to sexual reproduction because the offspring is not genetically identical to the parents

cell division

the reproduction of cells

enables cells to grow, old cells to be replaced

binary fission

When a single-celled organism reproduces asexually by dividing in half

chromatin

DNA and protein that makes up chromosomes

chromosome

A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.

sister chromatids

after the chromosomes are duplicated, the chromosomes contain two ________, proteins attached together that contain identical copies of the same DNA molecule

centromere

sister chromatids are joined together here, a narrow waist

cell cycle

An ordered sequence of events in the life of a eukaryotic cell, from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into two.

interphase

During _____ the cell grows and replicates both its organelles and its chromosomes.
lasts for most of the cell's lifetime

mitotic phase

Stage of the cell cycle when a cell is actively dividing

mitosis

Cell's division (PMAT) of the nucleus. Final product is 2 cells that are exactly like the parent cell.

cytokenisis

the division of the cytoplasm that forms two daughter cells

prophase

1st stage Chromosomes become visible, nuclear envelop dissolves, spindle forms

prometaphase

-Chromosomes attach to microtubules at the kinteochore(black dot protein thingy that helps move the chromosome), forming a spindle

metaphase

Chromosomes align in the middle of the cell (metaphase plate) with their homologous pair
The centromeres (chromosome waist) are all aligned

anaphase

the chromatids of each chromosome separate at the centromere and move in opposite directions toward each end of the pole

telophase

Cell finishes dividing, chromosomes lengthen and become thinner, nuclear membrane reappears, cytoplasm gets divided up evenly

cleavage furrow

The area of the cell membrane that pinches in and eventually separates the dividing cell

cytokinesis in plant cells

vesicles containing cell wall material collect at the middle of the parent cell, forming a cell plate

cell plate

a membranous plate that grows outward and fuses with the plasma membrane

anchorage dependence

the requirement that to divide, a cell must be attached to a solid surface.

density-dependent inhibition

The phenomenon observed in normal animal cells that causes them to stop dividing when they come into contact with one another.

growth factor

A protein secreted by certain body cells that stimulates other cells to divide

cell cycle control system

A cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle.
Like how the pituitary gland is like "time for puberty"
pretty much

cancer cells

Do not have a properly functioning cell-cycle system; instead, they divide excessively and can invade other tissues of the body

tumor

A mass of abnormal cells that develops when cancerous cells divide and grow uncontrollably.

benign tumor

A mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of origin

malignant tumor

A cancerous tumor that is invasive enough to impair the functions of one or more organs.

somatic cell

Body cells

homologous chromosomes

Chromosomes with matching information

carcinomas

cancers that arise in the skin, body chamber linings, or glands

locus

A specific place along the length of a chromosome where a given gene is located.

sex chromosomes

Chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual- X and Y

diploid cell

A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.

autosomes

Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome

gametes

A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm. Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.

haploid cell

A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).

zygote

Fertilized egg

meiosis

a type of cell division that produces haploid gametes in diploid cells

crossing over

Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.

chiasma

Point at which chromatids break and rejoin in crossing over.

karyotype

A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.

down syndrome

A condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.

nondisjunction

Error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate.

deletion

Change to a chromosome in which a fragment of the chromosome is removed

duplication

Change in chromosome structure in which a particular segment is present more than once in the same chromosome

inversion

A chromosomal fragment breaks off and reattaches to its original chromosome but in the reverse orientation

translocation

Change to a chromosome in which a fragment of one chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome

genetic recombination

the production of gene combinations different than those carried by the original chromosomes

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