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Test 1 Study Guide 1 The Microbial World and You 3 Observing Microorganisms Through a Microscope 4 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

1-1 List several ways in which microbes affect our lives.

1

Describe some of the destructive and beneficial actions of microbes.

destructive: pathogenic; spoil foods;
soil microbes break down wastes; beneficial: photosynthesis, digestion and synthesis of vitamins; produce acetone and butanol; produce foods; make jeans;

1-2 Recognize the system of scientific nomenclature that uses two names:

a genus and a specific epithet (species)

Distinguish a genus from a specific epithet.

a genus: Capitalized and
a specific epithet (species): not capitalized

1-3 Differentiate the major characteristics of each group of microorganisms.

Bacteria - simple, single-celled organisms, DNA not enclosed, Prokaryotic, peptidoglycan cell wall, binary fission (split into 2 equal parts), contain flagella

Archaea - prokaryotic, peptidoglycan cell wall, found in extreme environments; pathogenic in humans

Fungi- Eukaryotic, nucleus containing DNA, uni/multi cellular, photosynthesis, chitin cell wall, sexually or asexual repoduction

Protozoa - unicellular, eukaryotic, move using pseudopods, flagella or cilia, photosynthesis, sexual/asexual reproduction

Algae - eukaryotic, photosynthetic, unicellular, cellulose cell wall.

Viruses - acellular, simple, one type of nucleic acid, must have host to survive.

Multicellular Animal Parasites/Helminths - eukaryotic, (flat/round worms)

Which groups of microbes are prokaryotes?

Bacteria and archaea

Which are eukaryotes?

Algae, Fungi, Protozoa

1-4 List the three domains. What are the three domains?

Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

1-5 Explain the importance of observations made by Hooke and van Leeuwenhoek.

He discovered life's smallest structural units called 'cells'; discovered live microorganisms

What is the cell theory?

all living things are composed of cells

1-6 Compare spontaneous generation and biogenesis.

Belief that some forms of life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter;

What evidence supported spontaneous generation?

Redi's experiment with one covered and one uncovered meat jar producing maggots proved that this could not occur spontaneously

1-7 Identify the contributions to microbiology made by Needham,

1

Identify the contributions to microbiology made by Spallanzani

1

Identify the contributions to microbiology made by Virchow

1

Identify the contributions to microbiology made by Pasteur.

1

How was spontaneous generation disproved?

1

1-8 Explain how Pasteur's work influenced Lister and Koch.

1

Summarize in your own words the germ theory of disease.

1

1-9 Identify the importance of Koch's postulates.

1

What is the importance of Koch's postulates?

1

1-10 Identify the importance of Jenner's work.

1

What is the significance of Jenner's discovery?

1

1-11 Identify the contributions to microbiology made by Ehrlich and Fleming.

1

What was Ehrlich's "magic bullet"?

1

1-12 Define bacteriology

1

Define mycology

1

Define parasitology

1

Define immunology

1

Define virology.

1

1-13 Explain the importance of microbial genetics and molecular biology.

1

Differentiate microbial genetics from molecular biology.

1

1-14 List at least four beneficial activities of microorganisms.

1

Name two beneficial uses of bacteria.

1

3-1 List the metric units of measurement that are used for microorganisms. How long is it in nanometers?

1

3-2 Diagram the path of light through a compound microscope.

1

Through what lenses does light pass in a compound microscope?

1

3-3 Define total magnification and resolution. What does it mean when a microscope has a resolution of 0.2 nm?

1

3-4 Identify a use for darkfield, phase-contrast, differential interference contrast, fluorescence, confocal, two-photon, and scanning acoustic microscopy, and compare each with brightfield illumination.

1

How are brightfield, darkfield, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopy similar?

1

3-5 Explain how electron microscopy differs from light microscopy.

1

Why do electron microscopes have greater resolution than light microscopes?

1

3-6 Identify one use for the TEM, SEM, and scanned-probe microscopes.

1

For what is TEM used? SEM?

1

Scanned-probe microscopy?

1

3-7 Differentiate an acidic dye from a basic dye. Why doesn't a negative stain color a cell?

1

3-8 Explain the purpose of simple staining. Why is fixing necessary for most staining procedures?

1

3-9 List the steps in preparing a Gram stain

1

Describe the appearance of gram-positive and gram-negative cells after each step.

1

Why is the Gram stain so useful?

1

3-10 Compare and contrast the Gram stain and the acid-fast stain.

1

Which stain would be used to identify microbes in the genera Mycobacterium and Nocardia?

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3-11 Explain why each of the following is used: capsule stain, endospore stain, flagella stain.

1

How do unstained endospores appear?

1

4-1 Compare and contrast the overall cell structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Compare: both contain nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, and carbs; same chemical reactions to metabolize food, build proteins, and store energy.
Contrast: structure of cell walls and membrane, and absence of organelles

What is the main feature that distinguishes prokaryotes from eukaryotes?

Prokaryotes: DNA not enclosed, singular arranged chromosomes, DNA not associated with histones, lack membrane-enclosed organelles, cell wall contain polysaccharide peptidoglycan, divide by binary fission
Eukaryotes: DNA in nucleus, muti chromosomal, histones, membrane-enclosed organelles, cell wall simple, mitosis

4-2 Identify the three basic shapes of bacteria.

coccus- round, bacillus- rod shaped, spiral- spiral

How would you be able to identify streptococci through a microscope?

strepto- chains, cocci- round

4-3 Describe the structure and function of the glycocalyx.

sugar coat surrounding a cell. made of viscous (sticky), gelatinous polymer that is externa to the cell wall. composed of polysaccharide, polypeptide, or both.
-organized and firmly attached to cell wall: capsule
-unorganized and loosely attached: slime layer

Why are bacterial capsules medically important?

capsules protect pathogenic bacteria from phagocytosis by the cells of the host

4-4 Differentiate flagella, axial filaments, fimbriae, and pili.

Flagella: prokaryotic cells; long filamentous appendages that propel bacteria
Axial filaments: found on spirochetes; bundles of fibrils that arise at the ends of the cell beneath an outer sheath and spiral around the cell/spiral motion
Fimbriae: involved in forming biofilms; help bacteria adhere to epithelial surfaces
Pili: motility and DNA transfer (conjugation)

How do bacteria move?

Flagella, Axial filaments, fimbriae, and pili

4-5 Compare and contrast the cell walls of gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, acid-fast bacteria, archaea, and mycoplasmas.

Gram positive: many layers of peptidoglycan, thick, rigid structure; contain teichoic acids
Gram negative: thin layer of peptidoglycan, outer membrane made of lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, and phospholipids.
Acid-fast bacteria: high concentration of hydrophobic waxy lipid (mycolic acid), thin layer of peptidoglycan
Archaea: may have no cell wall, or unusual walls of polysaccharides and proteins- no peptidoglycan.
Mycoplasmas: no cell wall

Why are drugs that target cell wall synthesis useful?

Bacterial cell walls are made of different material as Eukaryotic cells

4-6 Compare and contrast archaea and mycoplasmas.

...

Why are mycoplasmas resistant to antibiotics that interfere with cell wall synthesis?

1

4-7 Differentiate protoplast, spheroplast, and L form.

Protoplast: a gram-positive bacterium or plant cell treated to remove the cell wall
Spheroplast: gram-negative bacterium treated to damage the cell wall; spherical cell
L form: prokaryotic cell that lack a cell wall; can return to walled state

How do protoplasts differ from L forms?

L forms can return to a walled state

4-8 Describe the structure, chemistry, and functions of the prokaryotic plasma membrane.

1

Which agents can cause injury to the bacterial plasma membrane?

1

4-9 Define simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, active transport, and group translocation.

1

How are simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion similar? How are they different?

1

4-10 Identify the functions of the nucleoid and ribosomes.

1

Where is the DNA located in a prokaryotic cell?

1

4-11 Identify the functions of four inclusions. What is the general function of inclusions?

1

4-12 Describe the functions of endospores, sporulation, and endospore germination.

1

Under what conditions do endospores form?

1

4-13 Differentiate prokaryotic and eukaryotic flagella.

1

4-14 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell walls and glycocalyxes.

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4-15 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic plasma membranes.

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4-16 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cytoplasms.

1

Identify at least one significant difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic flagella

1

and cilia, cell walls, plasma membranes, and cytoplasm.

1

4-17 Compare the structure and function of eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes.

1

The antibiotic erythromycin binds with the 50S portion of a ribosome.

1

What effect does this have on a prokaryotic cell? On a eukaryotic cell?

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4-18 Define organelle. Compare the structure of the nucleus of a eukaryote and the nucleoid of a prokaryote.

1

4-19 Describe the functions of the nucleus,

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Describe the functions of the endoplasmic reticulum,

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Describe the functions of the Golgi complex,

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Describe the functions of the lysosomes

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Describe the functions of the vacuoles

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Describe the functions of the mitochondria

1

Describe the functions of the chloroplasts

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Describe the functions of the peroxisomes

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Describe the functions of the centrosomes.

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How do rough and smooth ER compare structurally and functionally?

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4-20 Discuss evidence that supports the endosymbiotic theory of eukaryotic evolution.

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Which three organelles are not associated with the Golgi complex? What does this suggest about their origin?

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