changing important features of the world into messages understood by the brain.
the mental process of organizing sensations into meaningful patterns.
the minimum amount of physical energy necessary to produce a sensation... ex. tick of watch under quiet conditions, bee wing falling on cheek, drop of perfume in apartment, etc.
just noticeable difference (JND)
any noticeable difference in a stimulus.
perception of a stimulus below the threshold for conscious recognition.
the light-sensitive layer of cells at the back of the eye.
farsightedness, eye is too short, nearby objects blurry, faraway objects clear.
when eye has more than one focal point, parts of vision are blurry.
colored circular muscle that controls the amount of light entering the eye.
visual receptors for colors and daylight visual activity.
focuses images on the light-sensitive layer.
the sharpness of visual perception.
says that there are 3 types of cones, each sensitive to either red, yellow, or blue...any other color is a combination of these 3.
inability to perceive colors.
light-sensitive pigment in the rods.
Organ of Corti
center part of the cochlea, containing hair cells, canals, and membranes.
says that higher and lower tones excite specific areas of the cochlea.
deafness caused by damage to the hair cells or auditory nerve.
loss or impairment of the sense of smell.
the receptor organ for taste.
the senses of body movement and positioning.
sensory conflict theory
explains motion sickness as the result of a mismatch between information from vision, the vestibular system, and kinesthesis.
voluntarily focusing on a specific sensory input.
the illusory sensation that a limb still exists after it is lost through accident or amputation.
specialty concerned with making machines and work environments compatible with human perceptual and physical capacities.
perceptual features that impart information about distance and 3D spaces...two types: monocular/binocular.
tries to explain moon illusion in saying that the horizon seems more distant than the night sky.
information surrounding a stimulus.
a misleading or distorted perception.
two equal-length lines tipped with inward or outward pointing V's appear to be of different lengths.
giving priority to a certain incoming sensory message.
a decrease in perceptual response to a repeated stimulus.
using preexisting knowledge to rapidly organize features into a meaningful whole.
the purported ability to perceive events in ways that cannot be explained by known capacities of the sensory organs.
information arriving from the sense organs creates this.
study of the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations they evoke in a human observer... What is the
the change in stimulus intensity that is detectable to an observer.
the amount of change needed to produce a JND is a constant proportion of the original stimulus intensity.
the part of the electromagnetic spectrum to which the eyes are sensitive.
changes in the shape of the lens of the eye.
nearsightedness, long eyeball, can't focus on distant objects.
farsightedness caused by aging.
the opening at the front of the eye through which light passes.
visual receptors for dim light that produce only black and white sensations.
an area of the retina lacking visual receptors.
an area at the center of the retina containing only cones.
says that vision analyzes colors into "either-or" messages (red/green, yellow/blue, black/white).
another name for the trichromatic theory.3
receptor cells in the cochlea that transduce vibrations into nerve impulses.
says that tones up to 4000 hertz are converted to nerve impulses that match the frequency of each tone.
poor transfer of sounds from the eardrum to the inner ear.
damage caused by exposing the hair cells to excessively loud sounds.
an airborne chemical signal (seen among animals for mating, etc.).
sensations produced by the skin, muscles, joints, viscera, and organ of balance.
the senses of balance, position in space, and acceleration.
a decrease in sensory response to an unchanging stimulus.
gate control theory
proposes that pain messages pass through neural "gates" in the spinal cord.
part of stimulus appears to stand out as an object (figure) against a less prominent background (ground).
ability to see 3D space and accurately judge distances.
perception of space and depth caused chiefly by the fact that the eyes receive different images...causes 3D sight.
changes in perception that can be attributed to prior experience.
frame of reference
internal standards for judging stimuli.
illusion of movement in which an object is shown in rapidly changing series of positions.
the strict relationship between the distance an object lies from the eyes and the size of its image.
when you must divide your mental effort among tasks.
analyzing information starting with the small sensory units and building upward to a complete perception.
a readiness to perceive in a particular manner, induced by strong expectations.
the study of extranormal psychological events, such as extrasensory perception.
resistance to perceiving threatening or disturbing stimuli.