Unification of Germany Key dates

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A rundown of the key dates in the Unification of Germany 1815-1898

1815

Vienna Settlement, German Confederation established

1818

Prussian Customs Union (later expanded to Zollverein)

1834

Zollverein

1840

Friedrich Wilhelm IV = King of Prussia

1848

Berlin Riots + other European revolutionary movements

1848-49

Frankfurt Parliament, a result of the revolutions. Failed to achieve aims of strong central govt and national constitution.

1849

Prussian Union Plan (General von Radowitz). Based on FP's plan

1850

Punctation/Humiliation at Olmutz (Prussia forced to back down by the still superior Austria - Grosse vs Kleine Deutchland)

1861

Wilhelm I = King of Prussia

1862

Bismarck = Minister-President of Prussia (forces Army Bill reforms through)

1863-65

Schleswig-Holstein. Prussia and Austria vs Denmark fought for control of duchies.

1864 (October 30)

The Treaty of Vienna, a peace treaty signed between the Austria, Prussia, and Denmark. Based on the terms of the treaty, Prussia would administer Schleswig and Austria would administer Holstein. Disputes over the administration of the two provinces would lead to the Austro-Prussian War.

1866

Seven Week's War/Battle of Konnigratz/Battle of Sadowa/Austro-Prussian War. Defeat of Austria = North German Confederation established.

1866-67

Luxembourg affair. It involved competition between France and Prussia over control of Luxembourg. Resulted in the removal of the Prussian garrison, which was a "humiliating injury to German national feelings"

1869-70

Hohenzollern Candiature Crisis.

1870

Ems Telegram. The French demanded official renunciation of Prussian candidacy for the Spanish throne. The refusal of this demand and the media coverage of this made France declare war in "the defence of French honour and injured interests"

1870-71

Franco-Prussian war. Prussian victory due to batter tactics, weaponry and quick mobilisation. Sep 1870 = Surrender of Napoleon III.

1871

German Empire established, Bismarck made Chancellor.

1871 (May)

Peace of Frankfurt treaty.

1871-1880

Kulturkampf. (Ultimately failed, 1880 most laws repealed)

1873

Falk Laws = Catholics under closer state control eg loss of Prussian Catholics legal & civil rights.

1878

Anti-Socialist Laws. Bismarck afraid of their growing political power. Meetings banned, agitators punished, police power increased. Repression once again failed.

1879

Protectionism. This gave Bismarck power over Liberals and provided more income due to tariffs. The support of home industry eg Krupp & Siemans increased nationalism.

1883

State Socialism. Took power from Socialists + gained support of workers = increasing Bismarck's power. Introduced old age, disability and sickness benefits.

1888

Death of Wilhelm I

1890

"Resignation" of Otto von Bismarck. Wilhelm II and Bismarck did not agree on many issues, and sent Bismarck an ultimatum to resign or be fired.

1898

Death of Bismarck = grave = "A faithful servant of Kaiser Wilhelm I"

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