Frankfurt Parliament, a result of the revolutions. Failed to achieve aims of strong central govt and national constitution.
Punctation/Humiliation at Olmutz (Prussia forced to back down by the still superior Austria - Grosse vs Kleine Deutchland)
1864 (October 30)
The Treaty of Vienna, a peace treaty signed between the Austria, Prussia, and Denmark. Based on the terms of the treaty, Prussia would administer Schleswig and Austria would administer Holstein. Disputes over the administration of the two provinces would lead to the Austro-Prussian War.
Seven Week's War/Battle of Konnigratz/Battle of Sadowa/Austro-Prussian War. Defeat of Austria = North German Confederation established.
Luxembourg affair. It involved competition between France and Prussia over control of Luxembourg. Resulted in the removal of the Prussian garrison, which was a "humiliating injury to German national feelings"
Ems Telegram. The French demanded official renunciation of Prussian candidacy for the Spanish throne. The refusal of this demand and the media coverage of this made France declare war in "the defence of French honour and injured interests"
Franco-Prussian war. Prussian victory due to batter tactics, weaponry and quick mobilisation. Sep 1870 = Surrender of Napoleon III.
Falk Laws = Catholics under closer state control eg loss of Prussian Catholics legal & civil rights.
Anti-Socialist Laws. Bismarck afraid of their growing political power. Meetings banned, agitators punished, police power increased. Repression once again failed.
Protectionism. This gave Bismarck power over Liberals and provided more income due to tariffs. The support of home industry eg Krupp & Siemans increased nationalism.
State Socialism. Took power from Socialists + gained support of workers = increasing Bismarck's power. Introduced old age, disability and sickness benefits.
"Resignation" of Otto von Bismarck. Wilhelm II and Bismarck did not agree on many issues, and sent Bismarck an ultimatum to resign or be fired.