Biology

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Biology

Scientific study of life

Evolution

Organisms living on Earth today are modified descendants of common ancestors

Emergent Properties

New properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life

Cell

Lowest level of structure that is capable of performing all activities of life

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid; the heritable material that directs the cell's activities

Gene

Unit of inheritance that transmits information from parents to offspring

Chromosome

Cellular structure carrying genetic material

Positive Feedback

End product speeds up process

Negative Feedback

Accumulation of an end product of a process slows that process

Science

The process of discovery; the process by which study the natural world around us

Two types of inquiry :

-Discovery science
-Hypothesis -based science

Ecosystem dynamics include two major processes:

-Cycling of nutrients
-Flow of energy from sunlight to produces to consumers

Hypothesis

Tentative answer to a well-framed question
-Testable
-Falsifiable
- Can be eliminated, but cannot be confirmed with absolute certainty

Deductive Reasoning

Using general premises to make specific predictions

Control group

Used as a standard for comparison

Experimental group

test group

Matter

Anything that has mass and takes up space
-composed of elements

Element

Substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical reactions

Compound

Substance that consists of 2+ elements in fixed ratio

C,H,O,N

Make up 96% of living matter

Atom

Smallest unit of matter that till retains properties of an element

Number of electrons

Number of protons

Atomic Number

Number of protons

Mass Number

Sum of protons plus neutrons

Isotopes

Two atoms of an element that differ in number of neutrons

Valence Electrons

Electrons in the outermost shell

Inert

An atom is "happy" when its outer shell is full
-Nonreactive

Covalent Bond

Sharing of electrons

Ionic Bonds

Gain or loss of electrons

Electronegativity

Atom's attraction for electrons in a covalent bond

Non-polar Covalent Bond

Atoms share electron equally

Polar Covalent Bond

One atom is more electronegative ; atoms do not share electron equally

Ion

Charged atom or molecule

Cation

Lose electron and becomes more positive or less negative

Anion

Gain an electron and becomes more negative or less positive

Hydrogen Bond

hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is attracted to another electronegative atom

Four of water's properties that facilitate an environment for life are:

-Cohesive behavior
-Ability to moderate temperature
-Expansion upon freezing
-Versatility as a solvent

Kinetic Energy

Energy motion

Heat

Measure of the total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion

Temperature

Measure that intensity of heat due to the average kinetic energy of molecules

Solution

Liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of substances

Solvent

Dissolving agent of a solution

Solute

Substances that is dissolved

Aqueous solution

Solution in which water is the solvent

Hydrophilic

Substance an affinity for water

Hydrophobic

Substance- does not have an affinity for water

Acid

Increases the H+ concentration of a solution
less than 7

Base

Reduces the H+ concentration of a solution
greater than 7

Organic Chemistry

Study of compounds that contain carbon

Hydrocarbons

Organic molecules that consist only of carbon and hydrogen

Isomers

Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties

Functional groups

Components of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions

Four classes of biological macromolecules :

-Carbohydrates
-Lipids
-Proteins
-Nucleic Acid

Polymer

Long molecule consisting of monomers

Monomer

Small building- blocks molecules

Carbohydrates

Sugars and polymers of sugars

Glycosidic linkage

Covalent bond between two monosaccharides

Disaccharides

2 Monosaccharides

Polysaccharides

-Many monosaccharides
- Polymers of sugars

Lipids

are hydrophobic; they consist mostly of hydrocarbons, which form non-polar covalent bond
-Fats
-Phospholipids
-Steroids

Saturated Fats

Tend to be solid; no double bonds

Unsaturated fats

Tend to be liquid; has double bonds

Trans fats

Created when turning liquid fats into solid fats

Fatty acids

Carboxyl group attached to a long carbon skeleton

Fats

Glycerol head with three fatty acid tails

Glycerol

Three-carbon alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon

Phospholipid

Two fatty acids and a phosphate group attached to glycerol

Steroids

Lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings

Proteins

Polymers constructed from amino acid monomers

Amino acids

Organic molecules with carboxyl and amino group

Enzymes

Type of proteins that acts as catalyst

Denature

A change in the tertiary or quaternary structure

Nucleic Acid

DNA and RNA

Four Nucleotide Bases

Adenine (A)
Guanine(G)
Thymine(T)
Cytosine(C)

Base- pairing rule

A always across from T
C is always across from G

RNA nucleotides

Adenine (A)
Guanine (G)
Cytosine (C)
Uracil( U)

Nucleic Acid:DNA

-stores genetic information
-double helix
-phosphodiester linkage

Cell theory

-All living things are composed of one or more cells
-All cells come from pre- existing cells
-Cells are the basic organized unit of life

Two major types of cells:

Prokaryotic
Eukaryotic

Characteristics shared by all cells

-Enclosed by plasma membrane
- Have cytoplasm
-Use DNA as genetic information
-Have ribosomes for making proteins

Prokaryotic Cells

-No nucleus
-No membrane-bound organelles
- Cytoplasm bound by plasma membrane

Nucleus

-Double membrane
-Contains DNA & RNA
-Nucleolus
_Controls cell reproduction
-Pores regulate the entry and exit of molecules from the nucleus

Ribosomes

-Made of protein and rRNA
- Translation: Proteins synthesis
Free floating or attached to E.R.

Endomembrane

-Nuclear envelope
-Endoplasmic Reticulum
-Golgi Apparatus
-Lysosomes
- Vacuoles
-Plasmic Membrane

Endoplasmic

Two distinct regions:
-Smooth ER(lacks ribosomes)
-Rough ER (ribosomes stud surface)

Golgi Apparatus

-Consists of flattened membrane scas
-Functions of _______________
-Modifies products of the ER
-Manufactures certain macromolecules
-Sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles

Cytoplasmic

-Three main types of fibers make up the cytoskeleton
-Microtubules
-Microfilaments
-Intermediate

Cell Wall

Extracellular structure that distinguishes plant cells from animal cells

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