AP Chemistry: Bonding & Organic Chemistry

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Describe ionic bonds/compounds (6 things).

-Large 3D crystal lattice with alternating cation/anion
-Hard and brittle
-High melting point/boiling point
-The smaller the ions and the greater the charges, the stronger the bonds
-Solids are nonconductors
-Liquids and aqueous solutions are conductors

Describe network covalent substances (4 things).

-Neutral atoms held together by strong covalent bonds in a giant network (macromolecule)
-Very high melting points
-Nonconductors
-Insoluble in most solvents

Describe metallic substances/bonds (6 things).

-Metallic cations in a mobile sea of electrons
-Strength of the metallic bond depends on the number of valence electrons and the charge of the cations
-Good conductors of heat and electricity even in solid state
-Malleable and ductile due to the flexibility of the electron sea
-Insoluble in most solvents
-Lustrous due to the position (energy) of the "d" sublevel in metals

Describe molecular compounds/covalent bonds (4 things).

-nonmetals sharing (valence) electrons to achieve octet
-Low melting points and boiling points
-Nonconductors of electricity
-Usually gases and liquids at room temperature unless they are very large molecules with stronger dispersion forces

Describe the three types of intermolecular forces.

- London Dispersion Forces: Exist as a result of temporary dipoles due to shifting electrons in the molecules and are present between all molecules. Stronger in larger molecules because there are more electrons. Stronger london forces lead to higher melting points and boiling points.
- Dipole-Dipole Forces: Present between polar molecules only. Molecules act like tiny magnets that attract one another.

Bonding is exothermic/endothermic.

exothermic (think boulder analogy)

What is bond energy?

The energy needed to break a bond

What three factors determine the best lewis structure?

1. Formal charges closest to zero
2. Formal charges close in proximity
3. Negative formal charge on more electronegative atom

When can you have an electron deficient structure?

With a group II or III central atom

What is a free radical?

When a central atom has one unpaired electron. They are highly reactive and unstable.

What is a dimer?

A moleculer formed by two identical parts.
EX: NO₂ + NO₂ --> N₂O₄

What are the characteristics of an expanded octet Lewis Structure?

-Central atom with 10 or 12 electrons
-Central atom in periods 3, 4, or 5
-Terminal atoms are usually halogens

What are sigma bonds (3 characteristics)?

-formed by overlapping hybrid and/or "s" orbitals
-all single bonds and one of every multiple bonds
-electron density is directly between nuclei

What are pi bonds (3 characteristics)?

-formed by non-hybrid "p" orbitals (parallel)
-2nd (and 3rd) bond in a multiple bond
-electron density above and below the nuclei

What happens to pi bonds with resonance?

They are delocalized

What is the shape of a molecule with 3 bonds?

Triangular planar

What is the shape of a molecule with 2 bonds and 1 unshared pair? Bond angle?

Bent
Slightly less than 120°

What is the shape of a molecule with 4 bonds? Bond angle?

Tetrahedral
109.5°

What is the shape of a molecule with 3 bonds and 1 unshared pair? Bond angle?

Triangular pyramidal
107°

What is the shape of a molecule with 2 bonds and 2 unshared pairs? Bond angle?

Bent
105°

What is the shape of a molecule with 5 bonds? Bond angle?

Triangular bipyramidal
90° and 120°

What is the shape of a molecule with 4 bonds and 1 unshared pair? Bond angle?

Distorted tetrahedron (see-saw)
90° and 120° (and 180°)

What is the shape of a molecule with 3 bonds and 2 unshared pairs? Bond angle?

T-shaped
90° (and 180°)

What is the shape of a molecule with 2 bonds and 3 unshared pairs? Bond angle?

Linear°
180

What is the shape of a molecule with 6 bonds? Bond angle?

Octahedral
90°

What is the shape of a molecule with 5 bonds and 1 unshared pair? Bond angle?

Square pyramid
90° (and 180°)

What is the shape of a molecule with 4 bonds and 2 unshared pairs? Bond angle?

Square planar
90° (and 180°)

What must the electronegativity difference be for a bond to be nonpolar?

electronegativity difference ≤ .3

What does the prefix meth- mean?

1 carbon

What does the prefix eth- mean?

2 carbon

What does the prefix prop- mean?

3 carbon

What does the prefix but- mean?

4 carbon

What does the prefix pent- mean?

5 carbon

What does the prefix hex- mean?

6 carbon

What does the prefix oct- mean?

8 carbon

What does the prefix hept- mean?

7 carbon

What does the prefix non- mean?

9 carbon

What does the prefix dec- mean?

10 carbon

What is the group of saturated hydrocarbons called?

Alkanes

What are the three groups of unsaturated hydrocarbons?

Alkenes
-double bond between one pair of carbons
- often have geometric isomers
Alkynes
-triple bond between one pair of carbons
Aromatic
-benzene and its derivatives
-delocalized pi electron cloud

What is a Halide?

R-(Halogen)

What is an Alcohol?

R-OH

What is a Carboxylic Acid?

R-COOH
(double bond between C and one of the O)

What is an Ether?

R-O-R

What is an Aldehyde?

R-CO-H
(double bond between C and O)

What is a Ketone?

R-CO-R
(have a sweet smell)

What is an Ester?

R-COO-R
-double bond between C and one of the O
-single bond between C and the other O is the ester bond
-formed by the combination of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid

What is an Amine?

Ammonia with a functional group or hydrocarbon substituted for an H (primary, secondary, and tertiary).

What is a bond between two amino acids called?

A peptide bond

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