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Barberree ch 14

Carl Schurz

the German liberal who came to America in the mid-1800s, was a relentless foe of slavery and public corruption, and contributed richly to the elevation of American political life.

Ancient Order of Hiberians

the semi-secret society founded in Ireland to fight rapacious landlords that served in America as a benevolent society for the downtrodden.

Lowell Factory Girls

the New England farm girls of the mid-1800s who worked in a model Massachusetts textile mill.

Boston Associates

the name for the 15 families who joined together in the mid-1800s to form one of the earliest and most powerful joint capital ventures.

Clinton's Big Ditch

the popular nickname given to the Erie Canal in the 1800s.

Cyrus Fields

the wealthy manufacturer who was successful in 1858 in stretching a telegraph from Newfoundland to Ireland.

Cumberland Road

another name for the national road whose construction began in 1811 and which stretched from a town in western Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois.

John Deere

the inventor who changed farming by inventing the steel plow in 1837.

Fulton's Folly

the steamboat Clermont had this as its common nickname.

Hudson River & Lake Erie

name the bodies of water at both ends of the Erie Canal.

Industrial Revolution

the combination of inventions and gradual changes that ushered in the modern factory system.

DeWitt Clinton

the New York governor who pushed for the construction of the 363-mile canal in this state in 1817.

Irish Potato Famine

the disaster that forced many Irishmen to migrate to America during the 1840s.

Know-Nothing party

the more common name for the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner of American party that was part of the nativist movement of the 1840s.

continental economy

the term used to describe the US economy on the eve of the Civil War in which each region specialized to the benefit of the other regions.

labor unions are not illegal conspiracies

labor earned a hope-giving victory in 1842 when the Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled this in Commonwealth v. Hunt.

Lancaster Turnpike

the early Pennsylvania hard-surfaced road that served as a model for improving transportation west after the 1770s.

America Letters

the term for the much-read messages sent home from America by immigrants describing a richer life.

Cyrus McCormick

the Virginia-born inventor who produced a mechanical mower-reaper in the early 1800s.

Robert Fulton

the painter-engineer who constructed the first successful steamboat in 1807.

John Jacob Astor

the fur trader and real estate speculator who left an estate of $30 million upon his death in 1848.

cotton gin

the machine that revolutionized the textile industry by allowing so much more cotton to be separated from its seed than before.

Molly Maguires

the shadowy Irish miners' union that rocked the coal districts of Pennsylvania in the 1860s and 1870s.

Samuel F.B. Morse

the American developer of the telegraph who in 1844 sent a message from Washington to Baltimore, a distance of 40 miles.

nativist & nativism

the invasion of immigrants in the 1840s and 1850s gave rise to these movements based on fear, hatred, and mistrust of immigrants.

Pony Express

the system of carrying mail from St. Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento, California, in 1860 that took only about 10 days.

Savannah

the pioneer American steamer that crept across the Atlantic in 1819 using sail most of the time. This was the first steam-aided crossing.

Isaac Singer

the versatile inventor who improved upon and promoted the invention of Elias Howe.

Samuel Slater

the British mechanic acclaimed as the "Father of the Factory System" in America.

Tammany Hall

the powerful New York political machine under the control of Irish-Americans in the latter half of the 19th century.

Eli Whitney

the mechanical genius who in a period of ten days constructed a crude machine that revolutionized the cotton industry.

clipper ships

the long, narrow, high-masted, and faster American sailing ships of the 1840s and 1850s.

ten-hour day

a major triumph for labor came in 1840 when President Van Buren established this for all federal employees on public works.

Forty-Eighters

the nickname for the liberal German immigrants of the mid-1800s.

twisting the British lion's tail

the slang term for a politician in America in the mid-1800s making negative remarks about the British to his Irish audiences.

interchangeable parts

in 1798 Eli Whitney revolutionized manufacturing in the US a second time by introducing this principle that is the basis of mass production.

Maria Monk

the 1836 author of the book Awful Disclosures which depicted fictional sins behind convent walls.

Tariff of 1816

after the Peace at Ghent, British manufacturers unloaded surpluses at low prices prompting this mildly effective US tariff.

sewing machine

Elias Howe promoted manufacturing in the 1850s by successfully developing a commercial version of this machine.

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