the German liberal who came to America in the mid-1800s, was a relentless foe of slavery and public corruption, and contributed richly to the elevation of American political life.
Ancient Order of Hiberians
the semi-secret society founded in Ireland to fight rapacious landlords that served in America as a benevolent society for the downtrodden.
Lowell Factory Girls
the New England farm girls of the mid-1800s who worked in a model Massachusetts textile mill.
the name for the 15 families who joined together in the mid-1800s to form one of the earliest and most powerful joint capital ventures.
the wealthy manufacturer who was successful in 1858 in stretching a telegraph from Newfoundland to Ireland.
another name for the national road whose construction began in 1811 and which stretched from a town in western Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois.
the combination of inventions and gradual changes that ushered in the modern factory system.
the New York governor who pushed for the construction of the 363-mile canal in this state in 1817.
the more common name for the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner of American party that was part of the nativist movement of the 1840s.
the term used to describe the US economy on the eve of the Civil War in which each region specialized to the benefit of the other regions.
labor unions are not illegal conspiracies
labor earned a hope-giving victory in 1842 when the Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled this in Commonwealth v. Hunt.
the early Pennsylvania hard-surfaced road that served as a model for improving transportation west after the 1770s.
the term for the much-read messages sent home from America by immigrants describing a richer life.
the Virginia-born inventor who produced a mechanical mower-reaper in the early 1800s.
John Jacob Astor
the fur trader and real estate speculator who left an estate of $30 million upon his death in 1848.
the machine that revolutionized the textile industry by allowing so much more cotton to be separated from its seed than before.
the shadowy Irish miners' union that rocked the coal districts of Pennsylvania in the 1860s and 1870s.
Samuel F.B. Morse
the American developer of the telegraph who in 1844 sent a message from Washington to Baltimore, a distance of 40 miles.
nativist & nativism
the invasion of immigrants in the 1840s and 1850s gave rise to these movements based on fear, hatred, and mistrust of immigrants.
the system of carrying mail from St. Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento, California, in 1860 that took only about 10 days.
the pioneer American steamer that crept across the Atlantic in 1819 using sail most of the time. This was the first steam-aided crossing.
the British mechanic acclaimed as the "Father of the Factory System" in America.
the powerful New York political machine under the control of Irish-Americans in the latter half of the 19th century.
the mechanical genius who in a period of ten days constructed a crude machine that revolutionized the cotton industry.
the long, narrow, high-masted, and faster American sailing ships of the 1840s and 1850s.
a major triumph for labor came in 1840 when President Van Buren established this for all federal employees on public works.
twisting the British lion's tail
the slang term for a politician in America in the mid-1800s making negative remarks about the British to his Irish audiences.
in 1798 Eli Whitney revolutionized manufacturing in the US a second time by introducing this principle that is the basis of mass production.
the 1836 author of the book Awful Disclosures which depicted fictional sins behind convent walls.
Tariff of 1816
after the Peace at Ghent, British manufacturers unloaded surpluses at low prices prompting this mildly effective US tariff.