A state of cognitive balance between individuals' understanding of the world and their experiences.
the process of adjusting schemes and experiences to each other to maintain equilibrium.
mental patterns, operations, and systems.
The process of forming and using schemes in an effort to understand how the world works.
a form of adaptation in which an existing scheme is modified and a new one is created in response to experience
a form of adaptation in which an experience in the environment is incorporated into an existing scheme
the process of interacting—usually verbally—with others.
First stage of Piaget. 0-2 years. Children develop an understanding the world using their senses and physical abilities (motor capacities).
the knowledge that even when you can't see an object, it is still there.
the ability to use symbols—language, pictures, signs, or gestures—to represent actions or objects mentally. Pre-operational children are able to use symbols to represent things that are not present, a major accomplishment.
Piaget's second stage. Children approximate ages 2-7. Egocentrism, centration, lacks ability to reverse processes or to conserve.
the inability to interpret an event from someone else's point of view.
the tendency to focus on the most perceptually obvious aspect of an object or event to the exclusion of all others. A tall thin glass holds more liquid in it than a wide tumbler because of the height.
the ability to mentally trace the process of changing from one state to another. Shell games play on this ability (or inability).
the ability to mentally trace a line of reasoning back to its beginning.
the process of using logical thought to reach a conclusion. This process is not fully available to thinkers until formal operations.
children of this age will talk about what they are doing without really being involved in a conversation with others.
the idea that the "amount" of some substance stays the same regardless of its shape or the number of pieces into which it is divided.
Concrete Operational Stage
7-11 years Can think logically about concrete objects. Can transform, reverse, and use systematic reasoning as long as the objects about which they are thinking are present.
the ability to order objects according to increasing or decreasing length, weight, or volume
the process of grouping objects on the basis of a common characteristic
if nothing is added or taken away, a material stays the same
a change in one direction can be compensated for through a change in another direction.
can focus on more than one aspect at a time.
Formal Operational Stage
11-Adult. Can think abstractly (does not need to have concrete objects available). Can think systematically and hypothetically (what if...).
The assumption that everyone else shares one's thoughts, feelings, and concerns.