The starter of lutheranism and fought against indulgences in the Church and led the German state's reformation. Entrepreneur.
town where Martin Luther lived
Albrecht of Brandenburg
The Archbishop of mains who partook in indulgences, which led directly to the development of Luther's "95 Theses".
Arguments written by Martin Luther against the Catholic church. They were posted on Octobe 31, 1517.
Pope Leo X
This was the pope that used the sale of indulgences to rebuild a basilica and he was also the pope who challenged Martin Luther
Freedom of a Christian
this summarized Luther's idea that one could gain salvation through faith alone
An Address to the Christian Nobility of a German Nation
Another written piece written by Luther telling Germans to reject the authority of the Pope
Official statement from the Pope
Holy Roman emperor Charles V
called Imperial Diet at Worms - told Luther to renounce his ideas
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
a document drawn up in 1555 to defend the catholicity of Lutheran doctrine and to justify innovations in Lutheran practice
a military alliance formed by the nobility to oppose Charles V
Twelve Articles of the Swabian Peasants
when German peasants demanded right to choose their own pastors, serfdom, land, and refused to pay taxes
A radical German Anabaptist who was a rebel leader during the Peasants' War of 1524-26. Luther despised Muntzer for his politicization of the Reformation, and they disagreed over several religious doctrines.
Against the Thievish, Murdering Hordes of Peasants
Luther condemned the revolt in this pamphlet, Attacked the peasants and encouraged princes to eliminate the threat of revolt without mercy.
crushed the revolt from peasants in Germany
Swiss theologian whose sermons began the Reformation in Switzerland (1484-1531), disciple of Erasmus.
based doctrines entirely on these and emphasized the significance of faith and salvation
Zwingli and Luther could not agree on this sacrament
People who believed in only adult baptism.
A city in Germany. Many anabaptists from there believed the world was ending.
founded by Dutch leader Menno Simmons became descendants of Anabaptists and emphasized pacifism.
1509-1564. French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings.
the theological system of John Calvin and his followers emphasizing omnipotence of God and salvation by grace alone
(theology) being determined in advance
men chosen to minister to needs of community
a council convened to discuss ecclesiastical business
Calvinism in Scotland
The term applied to Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who strengthened their monarchical authority often by Machiavellian means.
Philip II of Spain
This was the king who started the success of Spain's foreign colonies
the first Lancastrian king of England from 1399 to 1413
This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
the great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588
French wars of religion
(1562-1598) Huguenots vs. Catholics results in Henry of Navarre (Huguenot) taking the throne as Henry IV, caused by calvinism and catholicism. aggressive in trying to win converts to their religion, went over eachothers authority. Known as the HApsburg-Valois Wars. The war started with the ruler Charles V trying to change the religion, but he was too busy fighting his opponents.
a great noble family in France under Catholic leadership who hope to inherit the throne one day. were assassinated.
another great noble family that followed Calvinism.
Catherine De Medici
Was the wife of Henry II. She acted as regent during the reign of her three weak and ineffective sons - Francis II (1559-60) Charles IX (1560-74) Henry III (1574-89).
St. Bartholomew's day massacre
wipes out Calvinism, kills 7,000 people, france remains catholic
Only major leader of Calvinism to escape the massacre
formed by the Guise; dominated the eastern half othe country for several years; 1584, allied with Spain's Philip II to attack hersey in France and deny the Bourbon Henry's legal right to inherit the throne
30 years war
War during the Reformation that started over religion but was made more political by wealthy families and religious leaders.
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended Thirty Years' War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-either Protestant or Catholic
result of the disagreement between Henry VIII and the Pope, created the Church of England or Anglican Church which was separate from the Catholic Church, still left little room for religious freedom
King Henry VIII
Founder of the church in England and ruled England from 1509-1547. He broke the Catholic church because he couldn't get a divorce
Catherine of Aragon
Queen of England that could not produce a male heir for Henry VIII
the second wife of Henry VIII and mother of Elizabeth I
Pope Clement III
refused to allow king henrys annulment
Married King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
Acts of Supremacy
granted King Henry VIII of England, in charge of the church
Church of England
Anglican church, Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope, Pope would not let Henry divorce his wife
Queen Mary of Spain
(Bloody Mary)(Married to Philip II) attempted to restore England to Roman Catholicism burned hundreds at the stake, including Thomas Cramer
Statute of Repeal Act
An act to eliminate the religious structure established under Henry VIII. Advocated by Queen Mary.
Elizabeth and Parliament required conformity to the Church of England but people were, in effect, allowed to worship Protestantism and Catholicism privately
A group of German peasants that took up arms against their wealthy landowners. Luther did not approve