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Periosteum

a)

Articular cartilage

c)

Joint (synovial) cavity

b)

Synovial membrane

e)

Joint 1


a) Nonaxial

b) Uniaxial

c) Biaxial

d) Multiaxial

d) Multiaxial

Joint 2


a) Nonaxial

b) Uniaxial

c) Biaxial

d) Multiaxial

b) Uniaxial

Joint 3


a) Nonaxial

b) Uniaxial

c) Biaxial

d) Multiaxial

b) Uniaxial

Joint 4


a) Nonaxial

b) Uniaxial

c) Biaxial

d) Multiaxial

a) Nonaxial

Joint 5


a) Nonaxial

b) Uniaxial

c) Biaxial

d) Multiaxial

c) Biaxial

Joint 6


a) Nonaxial

b) Uniaxial

c) Biaxial

d) Multiaxial

c) Biaxial

Joint 1

ball and socket

Joint 2

pivot joint

Joint 3

hinge joint

Joint 4

plane joint

Joint 5

saddle joint

Joint 6

condyloid joint

The amount of movement permitted by a particular joint is the basis for the functional classification of joints.


True / False

True

All joints permit some degree of movement, even if very slight.


True / False

False

Hinge joints permit movement in only two planes.


True / False

False

Synovial fluid is a viscous material that is derived by filtration from blood.


True / False

True

The articular surfaces of synovial joints play a minimal role in joint stability.


True / False

True

The major role of ligaments at synovial joints is to help direct movement and restrict undesirable movement.


True / False

True

The only movement allowed between the first two cervical vertebrae is flexion.


True / False

False

Movement at the hip joint does not have as wide a range of motion as at the shoulder joint.


True / False

True

A person who has been diagnosed with a sprained ankle has a injury to the ligaments that attach to that joint.


True / False

True

A movement of the forearm in which the palm of the hand is turned from posterior to anterior is supination.


True / False

True

The wrist joint can exhibit adduction and eversion movements.


True / False

False

Cruciate ligaments are important ligaments that stabilize all ball-and-socket joints.


True / False

False

Flexion of the ankle so that the superior aspect of the foot approaches the shin is called dorsiflexion.


True / False

True

The gripping of the trochlea by the trochlear notch constitutes the "hinge" for the elbow joint.


True / False

True

The ligamentum teres represents a very important stabilizing ligament for the hip joint.


True / False

False

The structural classification of joints is based on the composition of the binding material and the presence or absence of a joint cavity.


True / False

True

Synovial fluid contains phagocytic cells that protect the cavity from invasion by microbes or other deris.


True / False

True

A person who has been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis would be suffering loss of the synovial fluids.


True / False

False

A ball-and-socket joint is a multiaxial joint.


True / False

Truef

Bending of the tip of the finger exhibits flexion.


True / False

True

Dislocations in the TMJ almost always dislocate posteriorly with the mandibular condyles ending up in the infratemporal fossa.


True / False

False

Symphyses are synarthrotic joints desighned for strength with flexibility.


True / False

False

A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a ___ joint.


a) syndesmosis

b) suture

c) synchondrosis

d) gomphosis

d) gomphosis

The cruciate ligaments of the knee ___.


a) tend to run parallel to one another

b) are also called collateral ligaments

c) prevent hyperextension of the knee

d) assist in defining the range of motion of the leg

c) prevent hyperextension of the knee

Articular cartilage found at the ends of the long bones serves to ___.


a) attach tendons

b) produce red blood cells (hemopoiesis)

c) provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints

d) form the synovial membrane

c) provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints

A joint united by dense fibrocartilaginous tissue that usually permits a slight degree of movement is a ___.


a) suture

b) syndesmosis

c) symphysis

d) gomphosis

c) symphysis

On the basis of structural classificcation, which joint is fibrous connective tissue?


a) symphysis

b) synchondrosis

c) pivot

d) syndesmosis

d) syndesmosis

Connective tissue sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where friction develops are called ___.


a) menisci

b) bursae

c) ligaments

d) tendons

b) bursae

Articulations permitting only slight degrees of movement are ___.


a) amphiarthroses

b) synarthroses

c) diarthroses

d) synovial joints

a) amphiarthroses

___ are cartilaginous joints.


a) Syndesmoses

b) Sutures

c) Synchondroses

d) Gomphoses

c) Synchondroses

The gliding motion of the wrist is accomplished because of the ___ joint.


a) hinge

b) plane

c) pivot

d) condyloid

b) plane

The ligments that protect the alignment of the femoral and tibial condyles and limit the movement of the femur anteriorly and posteriorly and called ___.


a) cruciate ligaments

b) patellar ligaments

c) anterior ligaments

d) tibial collateral ligaments

a) cruciate ligaments

Bending your head back until it hurts is an example of ___.


a) flexion

b) extension

c) hyperextension

d) circumduction

c) hyperextension

In the classification of joints, which of the following is true?


a) Immovable joints are called amphiarthroses.

b) All synovial joints are freely movable.

c) Synarthrotic joints are slightly movable.

d) In cartilaginous joints, a joint cavity is present.

b) All synovial joints are freely movable.

Synarthrotic joints ___.


a) are found at the junction of the epiphysis and disaphysis of growing bone

b) are cartilaginous joints

c) permit essentially no movement

d) have large joint cavities

c) permit essentially no movement

Fibrrous joints are clasified as ___.


a) pivot, hinge and ball and socket

b) sumphysis, sacroiliac, and articular

c) hinge, saddle, and ellipsoidal

d) sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses

d) sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses

In symphysis joints the articular surfaces of the bones are covered with ___.


a) hyaline cartilage

b) synovial membranes

c) fibrocartilage

d) tendon sheaths

a) hyaline cartilage

Synovial fluid is present in joint cavities of freely movable joints. Which of the following statements is true about this fluid?


a) It contains enzymes only.

b) It contains lactic acid.

c) It contains hyaluronic acid.

d) It contains hydrochloric acid.

c) It contains hyaluronic acid.

Which of the following statements defines synchondroses?


a) amphiarthrotic joints designed for strenth and flexibility

b) interphalangeal joints

c) Joints that permit angular movements

d) cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones

d) cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones

What are menisci?


a) cavities lined with cartilage

b) small sacs containing synovial fluid

c) semilunar cartilage pads

d) tendon sheaths

c) semilunar cartilage pads

Which of the following is a true statement regarding gliding movements?


a) Gliding movements occur at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints.

b) Gliding movements allow flexibility of the upper limbs.

c) Gliding movemnts are multiaxail.

d) An example of a gliding movement is nodding one's head.

a) Gliding movements occur at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints.

What is moving a limb away from the median plane of the body along the frontal plane called?


a) abduction

b) adduction

c) inversion

d) dorsiflexion

a) abduction

The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to the ___.


a) hands

b) feet

c) arms

d) hands and the feet

b) feet

The hip joint is a good example of a(an) ___ synovial joints.


a) nonaxial

b) uniaxial

c) biaxial

d) multiaxial

d) multiaxial

Movement allowed in a pivot joint is known as ___.


a) biaxial movement

b) flexion

c) uniaxial rotation

d) extension

c) uniaxial rotation

Compared to the shoulder, displacements of the hip joints are ___.


a) common due to the weight bearing the hip endures

b) rare because of the ligament reinforcement

c) common in all people who are overweight

d) rare because the rotator cuff stabilizes the hip joint

b) rare because of the ligament reinforcement

Which ligament holds the radius to the ulna at the proximal end?


a) anular

b) ulnar collateral

c) radial collateral

d) iliofemoral

a) anular

Which ligament of the knee initiates the knee-jerk reflex when tapped?

a) the patellar ligament

b) the medial patellar retinacula

c) the lateral patellar reinacula

d) the extracapsular ligament

a) the patellar ligament

Football players often sustain lateral blows to the extended knee. Which of the ligaments is (are) damaged as a result?


a) oblique popliteal and extracapsular ligament

b) suprapatellar

c) arcuate popliteal and the posterior cruciate

d) medial collateral, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate

d) medial collateral, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate

Which of the following conditions is generally considered a noninflammatory type of arthritis?


a) bursitis

b) tendonitis

c) osteoarthritis

d) rheumathoid arthritis

c) osteoarthritis

What can cause gouty arthritis?


a) excessive blood levels of uric acid deposited as crystals in the soft tissue joints

b) a disorder in the body's immune system resulting in destruction of joints

c) a thickening of the synovial membrane and a decrease in fluid production

d) a bacterial infection in the bursae

a) excessive blood levels of uric acid deposited as crystals in the soft tissue joints

Pointing the toes is an example of ___.


a) circumduction

b) plantar flexion

c) pronation

d) protraction

b) plantar flexion

Which of the following is a true statement?


a) The head of the humerus articulates withthe acromion process.

b) the greater tubercle of the humerus articulates at the coracoid process of the scapula.

c) The rotator cuff is responsible for the flexible extensions at the elbow joint.

d) The anular ligament surrounds the head of the radius.

d) The anular ligament surrounds the head of the radius.

Multiaxial joints of the body include ___.


a) the knee and the elbow

b) the ankle and wrist

c) the hip and shoulder

d) intercarpal and intertarsal joints

c) the hip and shoulder

Presence of a synovial cavity, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, and ligaments are characteristics of what type of joint?


a) suture

b) synchondrosis

c) symphysis

d) hinge joint

d) hinge joint

Extracapsular ligaments stablilizing the knee include ___.


a) the patellar ligament extending from femur to patella

b) lateral and medial collateral ligaments preventing lateral or medial angular movements

c) curciate ligaments, which help secure the articulating bones together

d) the oblique popliteal crossing the knee anteriorly

b) lateral and medial collateral ligaments preventing lateral or medial angular movements

Which of the following is a correct statement about development of joints?

a) Joint develop in parallel with bones.

b) By the end of the fourth week, fetal synovial joints resemble adult joints.

c) all fibrous joints are in the adult form by the time of birth.

d) Joints develop independent of bone grwoth.

a) Joint develop in parallel with bones.

An example of an interosseus fibrous joint is ___.


a) the clavicle and the scapula at the distal ends

b) the radius and ulna along its length

c) between the vertebrae

d) between the humerus and the glenoid cavity

b) the radius and ulna along its length

Which of the following statements best describes angular movements?


a) They allow movement only in one plane.

b) They allow movement in several planes.

c) They occur only between bones with flat articular processes.

d) They change (increase or decrease) the angle between two bones.

d) They change (increase or decrease) the angle between two bones.

Saddle joints have concave and convex surfaces. Name the two bones of the hand that articulate to form a saddle joint.


a) The scaphoid of the index finger and the triquetrum of the middle finer.

b) The trapezium of the ring finger and the capitate of the fourth finger.

c) The scaphoid of the middle finger and lunate of the index finger.

d) The trapezium of the carpal bone and the thumb's metacarpal.

d) The trapezium of the carpal bone and the thumb's metacarpal.

Tendon sheaths ___.


a) act as friction-reducing structures

b) are lined with dense irregular connective tissue

c) form channels for tendons

d) help anchor the tendon to the muscle

a) act as friction-reducing structures

Which of the follwoing is "not" a part of the synovial joint?


a) joint cavity

b) tendon sheath

c) articular cartilage

d) articular capsule

b) tendon sheath

Which of the following is "not" a factor that contributes to keeping the articular sufaces of diarthroses contact?


a) structure and shape of the articulating bone

b) arrangement and tension of the muscles

c) strength and tension of joint ligaments

d) number of bones in the joint

d) number of bones in the joint

Turing the foot medially at the ankle would be called.

inversion

Moving your jaw forward, causing an underbite, is called ___.

protraction

A ___ is a fluid-filled sac a tendon slides over.

bursa

The joint between the frontal and parietal bones is called a ___ joint.

suture

Why are epiphyseal plates considered temporary joints?

Once long bone growth in length is complete, the cartilage of the epiphyseal plates ossifies to become a permanent synostosis.

Using the functional classification, a freely movable joint would be called a ___ joint.

diarthrosis

The kp joint, like the shoulder joint, is a ___ joint.

ball-and-socket

Partial dislocation of a joint is called a ___.

subluxation

The type of joint between the carpal and the first metacarpal is a ___ joint.

saddle

Shynovial joints have five major features. What are they?

articular cartilage, a joint cavity, an articular capsule, synovial fluid, and reinforcing ligments

Often people who exercise prudently seem to have fewer bouts with osteoarthritis. Will exercise prevent arthritis? If so, how?

Exercise does not prevent arthritis, but it strengthens muscles that in turn support and stabilize joints.

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