Unit: Thermal Energy

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Temperature

a measurement of the average kinetic energy of the particles in one location in a substance

Thermal Energy

the total energy (kinetic and potential) of all the particles in an entire substance

Heat

the movement of thermal energy from a hot area to a cold area

kinetic

Any moving object has _____ energy.

potential

The energy that is stored due to an object's position, shape, or chemical composition is called ______ energy.

particles

The _____ that make up matter have both kinetic energy and potential energy.

mechanical

The sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy in the particles that make up an object is called ______ energy.

energy

Thermal energy describes the _____ of the particles in solids, liquids, and gases.

kinetic

Scientists define temperature in terms of ____ energy.

temperature

The average kinetic energy of the particles that make up a material is the ______ of the material.

greater, lower

A material with a(n) ______ temperature has particles that have a greater average kinetic energy than a material with a(n) _____ temperature.

faster

Particles with an average kinetic energy that is high are moving at a(n) ______ average speed than particles whose average kinetic energy is low.

thermal, greater

Two materials can have the same temperature but different ______ energy. For example, ice and water have the same average kinetic energy, but liquid water has _____ thermal energy because its particles have greater potential energy than those of ice.

thermometer

A(n) ______ is used to measure temperature.

bulb, expands, glass

A(n) ____ thermometer has a liquid that _____ and rises in a(n) _____ tube when its temperature goes up; the liquid and its level drops when the temperature goes down.

electronic, temperature

A(n) ______ thermometer measures the resistance in an electronic circuit and converts this measurement into a(n) ______.

Celsius, 0, 100

Scientist worldwide us the _____ scale. Using this scale, water freezes at ___ degrees C and boils at ___ degrees C.

273, 373

Some scientist also used the Kelvin scale. Using this scale, water freezes at ___K and boils at ___K.

absolute

The lowest possible temperature for any material is called _____ zero. At this temperature, the particles in a material would not be moving at all and would have no energy.

Fahrenheit, 32, 212

Not a single scientist in the world uses the _______ scale. Using this scale water freezes at ___ degrees F and boils at ___ degrees F.

0, -273

Absolute zero is equal to ___K or ___ degrees C.

heat, cooler

____ is the movement of thermal energy from a warmer object to a(n) ____ object.

thermal, thermal

All objects have ______ energy , but heating occurs only when ___ energy is transferred from one object to another object.

temperature, more

The rate at which heating occurs depends on the ______ difference between two objects; the greater the difference, the ____ heat is transferred.

contact, temperature

Heating continues until all substances that are in ______ have reached the same ______.

Galileo, 1592

Who developed the first thermometer? In what year was it invented?

expand, contract

Liquids ______ when heated, and they _____ when cooled.

pure water

What substance is the Celsius temperature scale based on?

a mixture of equal parts of water, ice, and salt

What substance was the Fahrenheit temperature scale based on?

stored

Potential energy is a type of energy that is _____ due to the chemical makeup of a substance.

farther, greater

The _____ the particles in an object are from each other, the _____ their potential energy will be.

fast

The air's temperature depends on how _____ the air particles move.

kinetic

Temperature represents the average _____ energy of particles in one location.

0K

If a material is at ____, the particles in the material are not moving and do not have KE.

conduction

heat is transferred from one particle to another by direct contact

convection

heat is transferred by the movement of large number of particles

radiation

the transfer of heat in the form of EM (elctromagnetic) waves

particles

unlike conduction and convection radiation does not require _____ to transfer heat

insulator

a material in which thermal E does not flow easily and the particles are far apart

conductor

a material in which thermal E does flow easily and particles are close together

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