# Unit: Thermal Energy

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### Temperature

a measurement of the average kinetic energy of the particles in one location in a substance

### Thermal Energy

the total energy (kinetic and potential) of all the particles in an entire substance

### Heat

the movement of thermal energy from a hot area to a cold area

### kinetic

Any moving object has _____ energy.

### potential

The energy that is stored due to an object's position, shape, or chemical composition is called ______ energy.

### particles

The _____ that make up matter have both kinetic energy and potential energy.

### mechanical

The sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy in the particles that make up an object is called ______ energy.

### energy

Thermal energy describes the _____ of the particles in solids, liquids, and gases.

### kinetic

Scientists define temperature in terms of ____ energy.

### temperature

The average kinetic energy of the particles that make up a material is the ______ of the material.

### greater, lower

A material with a(n) ______ temperature has particles that have a greater average kinetic energy than a material with a(n) _____ temperature.

### faster

Particles with an average kinetic energy that is high are moving at a(n) ______ average speed than particles whose average kinetic energy is low.

### thermal, greater

Two materials can have the same temperature but different ______ energy. For example, ice and water have the same average kinetic energy, but liquid water has _____ thermal energy because its particles have greater potential energy than those of ice.

### thermometer

A(n) ______ is used to measure temperature.

### bulb, expands, glass

A(n) ____ thermometer has a liquid that _____ and rises in a(n) _____ tube when its temperature goes up; the liquid and its level drops when the temperature goes down.

### electronic, temperature

A(n) ______ thermometer measures the resistance in an electronic circuit and converts this measurement into a(n) ______.

### Celsius, 0, 100

Scientist worldwide us the _____ scale. Using this scale, water freezes at ___ degrees C and boils at ___ degrees C.

### 273, 373

Some scientist also used the Kelvin scale. Using this scale, water freezes at ___K and boils at ___K.

### absolute

The lowest possible temperature for any material is called _____ zero. At this temperature, the particles in a material would not be moving at all and would have no energy.

### Fahrenheit, 32, 212

Not a single scientist in the world uses the _______ scale. Using this scale water freezes at ___ degrees F and boils at ___ degrees F.

### 0, -273

Absolute zero is equal to ___K or ___ degrees C.

### heat, cooler

____ is the movement of thermal energy from a warmer object to a(n) ____ object.

### thermal, thermal

All objects have ______ energy , but heating occurs only when ___ energy is transferred from one object to another object.

### temperature, more

The rate at which heating occurs depends on the ______ difference between two objects; the greater the difference, the ____ heat is transferred.

### contact, temperature

Heating continues until all substances that are in ______ have reached the same ______.

### Galileo, 1592

Who developed the first thermometer? In what year was it invented?

### expand, contract

Liquids ______ when heated, and they _____ when cooled.

### pure water

What substance is the Celsius temperature scale based on?

### a mixture of equal parts of water, ice, and salt

What substance was the Fahrenheit temperature scale based on?

### stored

Potential energy is a type of energy that is _____ due to the chemical makeup of a substance.

### farther, greater

The _____ the particles in an object are from each other, the _____ their potential energy will be.

### fast

The air's temperature depends on how _____ the air particles move.

### kinetic

Temperature represents the average _____ energy of particles in one location.

### 0K

If a material is at ____, the particles in the material are not moving and do not have KE.

### conduction

heat is transferred from one particle to another by direct contact

### convection

heat is transferred by the movement of large number of particles

the transfer of heat in the form of EM (elctromagnetic) waves

### particles

unlike conduction and convection radiation does not require _____ to transfer heat

### insulator

a material in which thermal E does not flow easily and the particles are far apart

### conductor

a material in which thermal E does flow easily and particles are close together

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