Chap 25

Created by marcyluis_26 Plus

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A&P 2

Except for lactose and some glycogen, the carbohydrates we ingest are mainly from animals.

FALSE

The term essential nutrient refers to the chemicals that can be interconverted in the liver so that the body can maintain life and good health.

FALSE

The most abundant dietary lipids in the diets of most Americans are triglycerides.

TRUE

There are no complete proteins. All animal products should be eaten with plant material to make a complete protein.

FALSE

The body is considered to be in nitrogen balance when the amount of nitrogen ingested in lipids equals the amount excreted in urine.

FALSE

The amount of protein needed by each person is determined by the age, size, and metabolic rate of the person.

TRUE

Vitamins are inorganic compounds that are essential for growth and good health.

FALSE

Processes that break down complex molecules into simpler ones are anabolic.

FALSE

For use as fuel, all food carbohydrates are eventually transformed to glucose.

TRUE

It would not be healthy to eliminate all fats from your diet because they serve a useful purpose in maintaining the body.

TRUE

The primary function of carbohydrates is energy production within cells.

TRUE

Which of the choices below is not a fate of carbohydrate taken into the body?

conversion to a nucleic acid

Cholesterol, though it is not an energy molecule, has importance in the body because it ________.

is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones

It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ________.

most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients

In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the body for all of the following except ________.

production of energy

The most abundant dietary lipids are ________.

triglycerides

Prostaglandins play a role in ________.

control of blood pressure

Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?

The amino acid pool is the body's total supply of amino acids in the body's proteins.

Select the correct statement about proteins.

Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested.

Which of the following food groups are considered good sources of complete proteins?

eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish

Which of the following best defines negative nitrogen balance?

Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis.

The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells is ________.

glucose

Which of the following statements best describes complete protein?

must contain all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth

Minerals required by the body in moderate amounts include all but which of the following?

iron and selenium

Cellular respiration is an anabolic process.

FALSE

Which of the choices below describes the pathway of cellular respiration (the complete oxidation of glucose)?

glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation

Anabolism includes reactions in which ________.

larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones

Catabolism would be best described as a process that ________.

breaks down complex structures to simpler ones

The primary function of cellular respiration is to ________.

break down food molecules and generate ATP

Oxidation reduction reactions ________.

may involve the loss of hydrogen and electrons

What process primes a molecule to change in a way that increases its activity, produces motion, or does work?

phosphorylation

Glycolysis:
(matching questions)

glucose serves as the initial reactant

krebs cycle:
(matching questions)

involves the removal of hydrogen electrons and CO2 from the substrate molecule

glycolysis:
(matching questions)

occurs in the cystosol of a cell

electron transport chain:
(matching questions)

produces the most ATP

electron transport chain :
--matching questions--

involves the use of oxygen to pick up excess hydrogen and electrons

The term metabolism is best defined as ________.

the sum of biochemical reactions involved in building breaking down molecules

Beta oxidation is the initial phase of fatty acid oxidation, and it occurs in the cytoplasm.

FALSE

Glycogenesis begins when ATP levels are high, and glucose entering cells is phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate and converted to its isomer, glucose-1-phosphate.

TRUE

All athletes require diets high in protein and calories in order to perform and to maintain their muscle mass.

FALSE

In order for amino acids to be oxidized for energy, the amine group (NH2) must be removed.

TRUE

Carbohydrate and fat pools are oxidized directly to produce cellular energy, but amino acid pools must first be converted to a carbohydrate intermediate before being sent through cellular respiration pathways.

TRUE

When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in the urine is mostly________.

urea

The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as ________.

lipolysis

Lipogenesis occurs when ________.

cellular ATP and glucose levels are high

Transamination is the process whereby the amine group of an amino acid is ________.

transferred to a keto acid

Gluconeogenesis is the process in which ________.

glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors

Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the ________.

conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid

What is the outcome of ketosis?

metabolic acidosis

In the liver, the amine group of glutamic acid is removed as ________ in the oxidative state.

ammonia

When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it usually indicates increased metabolism of ________.

fatty acids

Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of energy per gram when metabolized?

fats

Which of the following does not occur in the mitochondria?

glycolysis

Which of the following is not true of beta oxidation?

It involves the anabolism of fats.

Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use of amino acids include ________.

excessive amounts of protein in the diet

Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration?

oxidative phosphorylation

Oxidative deamination takes place in the ________.

liver

In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and ________ are converted to glucose.

glycerol

Which food type is considered to be the most important for athletes to eat to improve performance?

complex carbohydrates

Which of the following is correct? Part A

Each FADH2 yields about 1 1/2 ATP via oxidative phosphorylation.

Glycogenolysis:
matching question

breakdown of glycogen to release glucose

gluconegenesis :
matching question

formation of glucose from proteins or fats

glycogenesis:
matching question

storage of glucose in the form of glycogen

glycolysis:
matching question

breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid

Lipogenesis:
matching question

synthesis of lipids from glucose or amino acid

lipolysis:
matching question

splitting of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids

beta oxidation:
matching question

conversion of fatty acids into acetyl groups

ketogenesis:
matching question

formation of ketone bodies

The increased use of noncarbohydrate molecules for energy to conserve glucose is called glucose sparing.

TRUE

Glycogen is formed in the liver during the ________.

absorptive state

Which of the choices below happens during the absorptive state?

Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones.

Which hormone directs essentially all the events of the absorptive state?

insulin

As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, only the ________ continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids.

brain

Which of the choices below is not a source of glucose during the postabsorptive state?

absorption of glucose from the GI tract

Glucose can be obtained from ________.

glycogenolysis

The preferred energy fuel for the brain is fat.

FALSE

When blood glucose levels are low, the body begins to use more noncarbohydrate fuels for energy production. This process is called glucose activation.

FALSE

Triglycerides and cholesterol do not circulate freely in the bloodstream.

TRUE

High levels of HDLs are considered good.

TRUE

Diets high in cholesterol and saturated fats tend to produce high HDL concentrations.

FALSE

Hank, a 17-year-old high school student, suffered a heart attack during a recreational swim. An autopsy revealed that he had had atherosclerosis and that his death had been caused by coronary artery disease. What might have been the cause of this disease that usually strikes a person much older than Hank?

He suffered from familial hypercholesterolemia.

The major role of HDLs is to store energy in the form of fat.

FALSE

Which of the following is not an important function of the liver?

synthesis of vitamin K

Which of the following is not a function of LDLs?

transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver

Ghrelin, produced by the stomach, is a powerful appetite stimulant.

TRUE

Peptides called NPY and AgRP are powerful appetite enhancers.

TRUE

Which of the following is a normal consequence of the activation of the heat-promoting center?

release of epinephrine

Which of the choices below is not a mechanism of heat production?

sweating

Heat-loss mechanisms do not include ________.

vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels

Many factors influence BMR. What is the most critical factor?

the ratio of surface area to volume (weight) of the body

Which of the choices below is not a major route of heat exchange?

shivering

When a person's hypothalamic thermostat is set to a higher level and the actual body temperature is below that level, the person may ________.

shiver

Evaporation:
matching question

heat is loss during evaporation

convection;
matching question

heat exchange when you are under a ceiling fan

radiation:
matching question

heat loss in the form of infrared waves

conduction:
matching question

heat transfer into the chair you are sitting on

Which of the following is the major role of leptin in the body?

protect against weight loss during nutritional deprivation

The term basal metabolic rate reflects the ________.

energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities

The ingestion of which nutrient type results in the greatest food-induced thermogenesis?

proteins

The amount of ________ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in determining BMR.

thyroxine

The primary reason elderly people should decrease their caloric intake is that ________.

muscle mass and metabolism decline with age

Select the correct sequence of steps as energy is extracted from glucose during cellular respiration.

glycolysis → acetyl CoA → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain

What is the correct general equation for cellular respiration?

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy

Which of the following processes takes place in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?

glycolysis

In what organelle would you find acetyl CoA formation, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain?

mitochondrion

Which statement describes glycolysis?

This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.

Which statement describes the citric acid cycle?

This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion.

Which statement describes the electron transport chain?

This process uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.

Oxidative phosphorylation is the process by which ATP is formed as a result of the transfer of electrons from NADH or FADH2 to O2 (molecular oxygen) by a series of electron carriers. Where does oxidative phosphorylation take place in human cells?

Cytoplasmic membrane

Which statement best describes the function of ATP synthase?

ATP synthase utilizes energy of the proton gradient to attach phosphate groups to ADP.

Which nutrients function as coenzymes and are needed in only small amounts?

vitamins

__________ is a substance in food used by the body to promote normal growth, maintenance, and repair.

A nutrient

Neurons and red blood cells rely exclusively on __________ to meet their energy needs.

glucose

Which of the following is a water-soluble vitamin?

vitamin B

Which of the following is represented by the "membrane" indicated in the figure?
(pic)

inner mitochondrial membrane

Which of the following molecules is most directly involved in the transfer of "energy from food" to the "proton pumps" depicted in this figure?
(pic)

NADH

Which of the following is a common feature of the processes indicated by both letters D and E?
(pic)

movement of hydrogen atoms associated with NADH

Which of the following is following is a true statement regarding the reactions indicated by the letters F and G?
(pic)

Both reactions F and G involve the transfer of a phosphate group from an organic substrate to ADP.

What is the primary function of cellular respiration - its end-purpose?

to generate ATP

Which nutrients are the most important anabolic nutrients?

amino acids

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