Except for lactose and some glycogen, the carbohydrates we ingest are mainly from animals.
The term essential nutrient refers to the chemicals that can be interconverted in the liver so that the body can maintain life and good health.
The most abundant dietary lipids in the diets of most Americans are triglycerides.
There are no complete proteins. All animal products should be eaten with plant material to make a complete protein.
The body is considered to be in nitrogen balance when the amount of nitrogen ingested in lipids equals the amount excreted in urine.
The amount of protein needed by each person is determined by the age, size, and metabolic rate of the person.
Vitamins are inorganic compounds that are essential for growth and good health.
Processes that break down complex molecules into simpler ones are anabolic.
For use as fuel, all food carbohydrates are eventually transformed to glucose.
It would not be healthy to eliminate all fats from your diet because they serve a useful purpose in maintaining the body.
The primary function of carbohydrates is energy production within cells.
Which of the choices below is not a fate of carbohydrate taken into the body?
conversion to a nucleic acid
Cholesterol, though it is not an energy molecule, has importance in the body because it ________.
is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones
It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ________.
most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients
In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the body for all of the following except ________.
production of energy
The most abundant dietary lipids are ________.
Prostaglandins play a role in ________.
control of blood pressure
Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?
The amino acid pool is the body's total supply of amino acids in the body's proteins.
Select the correct statement about proteins.
Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested.
Which of the following food groups are considered good sources of complete proteins?
eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish
Which of the following best defines negative nitrogen balance?
Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis.
The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells is ________.
Which of the following statements best describes complete protein?
must contain all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth
Minerals required by the body in moderate amounts include all but which of the following?
iron and selenium
Cellular respiration is an anabolic process.
Which of the choices below describes the pathway of cellular respiration (the complete oxidation of glucose)?
glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation
Anabolism includes reactions in which ________.
larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones
Catabolism would be best described as a process that ________.
breaks down complex structures to simpler ones
The primary function of cellular respiration is to ________.
break down food molecules and generate ATP
Oxidation reduction reactions ________.
may involve the loss of hydrogen and electrons
What process primes a molecule to change in a way that increases its activity, produces motion, or does work?
glucose serves as the initial reactant
involves the removal of hydrogen electrons and CO2 from the substrate molecule
occurs in the cystosol of a cell
electron transport chain:
produces the most ATP
electron transport chain :
involves the use of oxygen to pick up excess hydrogen and electrons
The term metabolism is best defined as ________.
the sum of biochemical reactions involved in building breaking down molecules
Beta oxidation is the initial phase of fatty acid oxidation, and it occurs in the cytoplasm.
Glycogenesis begins when ATP levels are high, and glucose entering cells is phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate and converted to its isomer, glucose-1-phosphate.
All athletes require diets high in protein and calories in order to perform and to maintain their muscle mass.
In order for amino acids to be oxidized for energy, the amine group (NH2) must be removed.
Carbohydrate and fat pools are oxidized directly to produce cellular energy, but amino acid pools must first be converted to a carbohydrate intermediate before being sent through cellular respiration pathways.
When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in the urine is mostly________.
The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as ________.
Lipogenesis occurs when ________.
cellular ATP and glucose levels are high
Transamination is the process whereby the amine group of an amino acid is ________.
transferred to a keto acid
Gluconeogenesis is the process in which ________.
glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors
Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the ________.
conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
What is the outcome of ketosis?
In the liver, the amine group of glutamic acid is removed as ________ in the oxidative state.
When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it usually indicates increased metabolism of ________.
Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of energy per gram when metabolized?
Which of the following does not occur in the mitochondria?
Which of the following is not true of beta oxidation?
It involves the anabolism of fats.
Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use of amino acids include ________.
excessive amounts of protein in the diet
Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration?
Oxidative deamination takes place in the ________.
In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and ________ are converted to glucose.
Which food type is considered to be the most important for athletes to eat to improve performance?
Which of the following is correct? Part A
Each FADH2 yields about 1 1/2 ATP via oxidative phosphorylation.
breakdown of glycogen to release glucose
formation of glucose from proteins or fats
storage of glucose in the form of glycogen
breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid
synthesis of lipids from glucose or amino acid
splitting of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids
conversion of fatty acids into acetyl groups
formation of ketone bodies
The increased use of noncarbohydrate molecules for energy to conserve glucose is called glucose sparing.
Glycogen is formed in the liver during the ________.
Which of the choices below happens during the absorptive state?
Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones.
Which hormone directs essentially all the events of the absorptive state?
As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, only the ________ continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids.
Which of the choices below is not a source of glucose during the postabsorptive state?
absorption of glucose from the GI tract
Glucose can be obtained from ________.
The preferred energy fuel for the brain is fat.
When blood glucose levels are low, the body begins to use more noncarbohydrate fuels for energy production. This process is called glucose activation.
Triglycerides and cholesterol do not circulate freely in the bloodstream.
High levels of HDLs are considered good.
Diets high in cholesterol and saturated fats tend to produce high HDL concentrations.
Hank, a 17-year-old high school student, suffered a heart attack during a recreational swim. An autopsy revealed that he had had atherosclerosis and that his death had been caused by coronary artery disease. What might have been the cause of this disease that usually strikes a person much older than Hank?
He suffered from familial hypercholesterolemia.
The major role of HDLs is to store energy in the form of fat.
Which of the following is not an important function of the liver?
synthesis of vitamin K
Which of the following is not a function of LDLs?
transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver
Ghrelin, produced by the stomach, is a powerful appetite stimulant.
Peptides called NPY and AgRP are powerful appetite enhancers.
Which of the following is a normal consequence of the activation of the heat-promoting center?
release of epinephrine
Which of the choices below is not a mechanism of heat production?
Heat-loss mechanisms do not include ________.
vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels
Many factors influence BMR. What is the most critical factor?
the ratio of surface area to volume (weight) of the body
Which of the choices below is not a major route of heat exchange?
When a person's hypothalamic thermostat is set to a higher level and the actual body temperature is below that level, the person may ________.
heat is loss during evaporation
heat exchange when you are under a ceiling fan
heat loss in the form of infrared waves
heat transfer into the chair you are sitting on
Which of the following is the major role of leptin in the body?
protect against weight loss during nutritional deprivation
The term basal metabolic rate reflects the ________.
energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities
The ingestion of which nutrient type results in the greatest food-induced thermogenesis?
The amount of ________ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in determining BMR.
The primary reason elderly people should decrease their caloric intake is that ________.
muscle mass and metabolism decline with age
Select the correct sequence of steps as energy is extracted from glucose during cellular respiration.
glycolysis → acetyl CoA → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain
What is the correct general equation for cellular respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy
Which of the following processes takes place in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?
In what organelle would you find acetyl CoA formation, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain?
Which statement describes glycolysis?
This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.
Which statement describes the citric acid cycle?
This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion.
Which statement describes the electron transport chain?
This process uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.
Oxidative phosphorylation is the process by which ATP is formed as a result of the transfer of electrons from NADH or FADH2 to O2 (molecular oxygen) by a series of electron carriers. Where does oxidative phosphorylation take place in human cells?
Which statement best describes the function of ATP synthase?
ATP synthase utilizes energy of the proton gradient to attach phosphate groups to ADP.
Which nutrients function as coenzymes and are needed in only small amounts?
__________ is a substance in food used by the body to promote normal growth, maintenance, and repair.
Neurons and red blood cells rely exclusively on __________ to meet their energy needs.
Which of the following is a water-soluble vitamin?
Which of the following is represented by the "membrane" indicated in the figure?
inner mitochondrial membrane
Which of the following molecules is most directly involved in the transfer of "energy from food" to the "proton pumps" depicted in this figure?
Which of the following is a common feature of the processes indicated by both letters D and E?
movement of hydrogen atoms associated with NADH
Which of the following is following is a true statement regarding the reactions indicated by the letters F and G?
Both reactions F and G involve the transfer of a phosphate group from an organic substrate to ADP.
What is the primary function of cellular respiration - its end-purpose?
to generate ATP
Which nutrients are the most important anabolic nutrients?