The effort to devolve onto the states the national government's functions in areas such as welfare, healthcare, and job training.
money from the national government for programs in certain general areas that the states can use at their discretion within broad range of guidelines set by Congress or responsible federal agencies.
the political system in which there are local units of government as well as national government, that can make final decisions with respect to at least some governmental activities and whose existence is especially protected.
supreme or ultimate political authority.
system in which local governments can be altered or even abolished by the national government and cannot plausibly claim to have final authority over any significant governmental activities.
one in which sovereignty is shared, so that i some matters the national government is supreme and in other matters the states permit.
A system of government in which people create state governments, which in turn, create and operate a national government.
Congress shall have power to "make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers."
the leader of the Supreme Court during the early years of the Republic. He was an advocate of Hamiltion;s position.
McCulloch v. Maryland
The legal case in which McCulloch the cashier of a bank refused to pay taxes levied on that bank by the state of Maryland. He won the case.
Necessary and proper clause
Section of the constitution allowing congress to pass all laws"necessary and proper" to its duties, and which has permitted congress to exercise powers not specifically given to it by the constitution.
The doctrine that a state declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the constitution.
Doctrine holding that the national government is supreme in its sphere, the states are supreme in theirs, and the two should be kept seperate.
congress could regulate.
congress could not regulate, only the states.
US v Lopez
The Court held that Congress had exceeded its commerce clause power by prohibiting guns in a school zone.
US v Morrison
the court, in a five to four decision, said that any attacks against womten are not, and do not substantially affect, interstate commerce, and hence congress cannot constitutionally pass such a law.
Printz v. US
The Court invalidated a federal law that required local police to conduct background checks on all gun purchasers
Alden v. Maine
The Court held that state employees could not sue to force state compliance with federal labor laws.
The state's power to enact laws promoting health,safety, and morals.
Allows voters to place legislative measures directly on the ballot by getting enough signatures on the petition.
A procedure that enables voters to reject a measure adopted by the legislature,
the procedure in which voters can remove an elected official from office.
Grants in aid
Money given by the national government to the states.
A governmental grant for a specific purpose defined by federal law. For example to build an airport.
Conditions of aid
Terms set by the national government that states must meet if they are to receive certain federal funds.
Terms set by the national government that states must meet whether or not they accept federal grants.
a type of block grant for purposes such as running state child care programs.
type of bock grant for purposes such as building local wastewater treatment plants.
type of block grant for transferring income to families ad individuals.