APUSH unit 7

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Ulysses S. Grant

an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.

Jay Cooke

A New York financier who was interested in the OSN Railroads. When he acquired the charter of the North Pacific, he persuaded Congress to enlarge the land grants 60 miles on each side of the railroad, and he allowed timber companies to sell of these lands.His bankruptcy caused a national depression.

Chester A. Arthur

21st president after Ruthefird B. Hayes; one term; Republican; took over for Garfield; elected as VP of NY; Believed in the spoils system

Horatio Seymour

Democrat who lost to Ulysses S. Grant in the election of 1868

Roscoe Conkling

A politician from New York who served both as a member of the United States House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. He was the leader of the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party. Was highly against civil service reforms, it was thought that the killing of Garfield was done in Conkling's behest.

Winfield S. Hancock

a Civil War general who appealed to the South due to his fair treatment of it during Reconstruction and a veteran who had been wounded at Gettysburg, and thus appealed to veterans. he was chosen by the democrats

Jim Fisk

worked with jay gould - wanted to corner the US gold market and convince the treasury not to release gold so they could have control over the gold market - almost worked- showed corruption of grant presidency - lead to black friday

James G. Blaine

a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine, two-time United States Secretary of State, and champion of the Half-Breeds. He was a dominant Republican leader of the post Civil War period, obtaining the 1884 Republican nomination, but lost to Democrat Grover Cleveland

Charles Guiteau

He killed Garfield and led to people thinking that Conkling killed Garfield

Jay Gould

United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market (1836-1892)

Rutherford B. Hayes

19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history

Grover Cleveland

22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes

Thomas Nast

Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.

Samuel Tilden

Democratic candidate for the U.S. presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. A political reformer, he was a Bourbon Democrat who worked closely with the New York City business community, led the fight against the corruption of Tammany Hall, and fought to keep taxes low

Benjamin Harrison

23rd President in 1888; Republican, poor leader, introduced the McKinley Tariff and increased federal spending to a billion dollars

Horace Greely

He was the editor of the New York times and was nominated by the Liberal Repbulican Party to become presidnet in 1872

James A. Garfield

the 20th President 1880; died six months after his inauguration.

Liberal Republicans

Party formed in 1872 (split from the ranks of the Republican Party) which argued that the Reconstruction task was complete and should be set aside. Significantly dampered further Reconstructionist efforts.

cheap money

name for increase of paper money in circulation

contraction

Policy which decreased the amount of money per capital in circulation between 1870 and 1880

Gilded Age

1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside from industrialization, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor

hard money

Political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed. Raising such limited funds is harder than raising unlimited funds, hence the term's name.

sound money

paper money backed by gold

resumption

The act of beginning again after it has been stopped.

spoils system

the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power

"Ohio Idea"

1867 - Senator George H. Pendleton proposed an idea that Civil War bonds and gold be redeemed with greenbacks. It was not adopted.

Resumption Act 1879

required the gov't to withdraw greenbacks from circulation, and to redeem the paper money with its equivalent in gold at face value

Stalwart

a person who is loyal to their allegiance (especially in times of revolt)

the bloody shirt

During the election of 1876, the Republicans backed Rutherford Hayes against the Democratic candidate, Samuel Tilden. They resorted to a tactic known as "waving the bloody shirt," which was used in the last two elections. The tactic emphasized wartime animosities by urging northern voters to vote the way they shot.

"Crime of '73"

through the coinage act of 1873, the US ended the minting of silver dollars and placed the country on the gold standard. this was attacked by those who supported an inflationary monetary policy, particularly farmers and believed in the unlimited coinage of silver

Half-Breed

republican reformers who supported the spoils system

Tweed Ring

(USG) , the corrupt part of Tammany Hall in New York City, started by Burly "Boss" Tweed that Samuel J. Tilden, the reform governor of New York had been instrumental in overthrowing, Thomas Nast exposed through illustration in Harper's Weekly

Bland Allison Act 1878

law passed over the veto of President Rutherford B. Hayes requiring the U.S. treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars. The goal was to subsidize the silver industry in the Mountain states and inflate prices

Compromise of 1877

Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river

Whiskey RIng 1874-1875

During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.

Greenback Labor Party

Agrarian political party devoted to improving the lives of laborers and raising inflation, reaching its high point in 1878 when it polled over a million votes and elected fourteen members of Congress.

Pendleton Act 1883

It made compulsory campaign contributions from federal employees illegal, and established the Civil Service Commission to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of examination rather than cronyism

Credit Mobilier 1863 and 1867

Scandalous company created by Union Pacific Railroad insiders, it distributed shares of its stock to Congressmen to avoid detection

GAR

Grand Army of the Republic; veteran special interest grp who greatly benefited from Harrison's handouts

Mugwumps

A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine.

Leland Stanford

president of the central pacific, who joined the country by pounding a solid gold spike to join to tracks 1863. Founded stanford in 1885

Alexander Graham Bell

United States inventor (born in Scotland) of the telephone (1847-1922)

J. Pierpont Morgan

one of the big four; an American financier, banker, philanthropist, and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time. In 1892 he arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thompson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric.

Collis Huntington

Lobbyist and Vice President of the Central Pacific Railroad; one of the Big Four

Thomas Edison

American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.

Terence V. Powderly

Irish-American leader of the Knights who won many strikes for the eight-hour work day. He led the Knights to become a major power in gaining rights for the workers in factories.

James J. Hill

driving force of the Gr. Northern Railway , Became a Shipping Agent For Winnipeg Merchants Nicknamed the "Empire Builder"

Andrew Carnegie

A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.

John Altgeld

governor of Illinois, and leading figure in the Progressive movement. He improved safety in the workplace and child labor laws. He pardoned 3 convicted at Haymarket Square Riot

Cornelius Vanderbilt

a railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.

John D. Rockefeller

Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history

Samuel Gompers

United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)

land grant

land designated by the federal government for building schools, roads, or railroads

vertical integration

when a firm would strive to control all aspects of production (from acquisition of raw materials to the finished product)

capital goods

buildings, machinery, tools, and other goods that provide productive services over a period of time

stock watering

Railroad stock promoters inflated their claims and sold stocks for more than they were worth. Forced managers to charge high rates and ruthless competition

horizontal integration

Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition. Ex. Rockefeller

plutocracy

government ruled by the wealthy

pool

any communal combination of funds

trust

group of corporations run by a single board of directors

injunction

An order which legally prevents something

rebate

a refund of some fraction of the amount paid

interlocking directorate

Situation occurring when the majority of members of the boards of directors of competing corporations are the same; in effect, having one group of people manage both companies

yellow dog contract

a labor contract in which an employee must agree not to join a union as a condition of holding the job.

Union Pacific Railroad

built westward across the Great Plains starting from Omaha, Nebraska. joined central pacific in 1869. building employed irish immigrants and mexican and african americans

United States Steel

Founded in 1901 by combining the Andrew Carnegie's Carnegie Steel Company with Gary's Federal Steel Company and William Henry "Judge" Moore's National Steel Company for $492 million. It was capitalized at $1.4 billion, making it the world's first billion-dollar corporation.

National Labor Union

1866-established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers

Central Pacific Railroad

A railroad that started in Sacramento , and connected with the Union Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, Utah; hired Irish immigrants

Gospel of Wealth

This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.

Haymarket riot 1886

100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant feelings.

The Grange

established in 1867, originally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads

William Graham Sumner

He was an advocate of Social Darwinism claiming that the rich were a result of natural selection and benefits society. He, like many others promoted the belief of Social Darwinism which justified the rich being rich, and poor being poor.

American Federation of Labor

founded in 1886 a union for skilled laborers that fought for worker rights in a non-violent way. It provided skilled laborers with a union that was unified, large, and strong.

Wabash case 1886

supreme court case that decreed that individual states had no power to regulate interstate commerce

New South

Term that identified southern promoters' belief in the technologically advanced industrial South after the civil war

Bessemer process

A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.

Jane Addams

Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.

Booker T. Washington

Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."

Horatio Alger

Writer of novels stressing rags to riches stories of boys

Florence Kelly

helped persuade to prohibit child labor and limit number of hours women were forced to work, founded national child labor committe

W.E.B DuBois

He believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediately. He helped found the Niagara Movement in 1905 to fight for equal rights. He also helped found the NAACP.

Mark Twain

United States writer and humorist best known for his novels about Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn (1835-1910). Also wrote the "Gilded Age"

Mary Baker Eddy

She founded the Church of Christ(Christian Science) in 1879. Preached that the true practice of Christianity heals sickness. (No need for a doctor, if have enough faith can heal self). Wrote a widely purchased book, "Science and Health with a key to the Scriptures".

William James

founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; wrote first psychology textbook - The Principles of Psychology

Charlotte Perkins Gilman

A major feminist prophet during the late 19th and early 20th century. She published "Women and Economics" which called on women to abandon their dependent status and contribute more to the community through the economy. She created centralized nurseries and kitchens to help get women into the work force.

Charles Darwin

English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)

Henry George

He wrote Progress and Poverty in 1879, which made him famous as an opponent of the evils of modern capitalism.

Carrie Chapman Catt

Spoke powerfully in favor of suffrage, worked as a school principal and a reporter ., became head of the National American Woman Suffrage Association, an inspiried speaker and a brilliant organizer. Devised a detailed battle plan for fighting the war of suffrage.

megalopolis

A unified urban region comprising several large cities and their surrounding areas

nativism

against immigrants

pragmatism

(philosophy) the doctrine that practical consequences are the criteria of knowledge and meaning and value

ethnicity

A social division based on national origin, religion, language, and often race.

evolution

change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms

yellow journalism

Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers

settlement house

an institution that provided educational and social services to poor people and immigrants upon entry.

philanthropy

love of mankind; donating to charity

Comstock law 1873

law making it illegal to send "obscene" material through the mail

New Immigration

The second major wave of immigration to the U.S.; between 1865-1910, 25 million new immigrants arrived. Unlike earlier immigration, which had come primarily from Western and Northern Europe, the New Immigrants came mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, fleeing persecution and poverty. Language barriers and cultural differences produced mistrust by Americans.

Modernist

Movement of poetry that gained momentum in the 1890's. These people thought that poetry didn't need complicated schemes or language. They wanted to use the best of all past cultures in their poetry.

Women's Christian Temperance Union 1874

the purpose is to prohibit the sale and consumption of drinks. they wanted men to stop drinking. dedicated to the 18th amendment (banning aclcohol.)

Social gospel

Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization.

Chautauqua movement

One of the first adult education programs. Started in 1874 as a summer training program for Sunday School teachers, it developed into a travelling lecture series and adult summer school which traversed the country providing religious and secular education though lectures and classes.

Hull House

(founded in 1889) Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.

Morrill Act 1862

Federal law that gave land to western states to build agricultural and engineering colleges.

Eighteenth Amendment 1919

banned the sale of alcohol

Sitting Bull

Hunkpapa Sioux medicine man and chief, was the political leader of his tribe at the time of the Custer massacre and during the Sioux War of 1875-1876.

Geronimo

Apache chieftain who raided the white settlers in the Southwest as resistance to being confined to a reservation

Oliver H. Kelley

Leading organizer of the grange who stressed social ritual and education for farmers

George A. Custer

us general who commanded the army at the battle of little bighorn, he was killed

Helen Hunt jackson

United States writer of romantic novels about the unjust treatment of Native Americans (1830-1885)

Chief Joseph

Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations in 1877. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations

Joseph Glidden

Invented barbed wire. This allowed a farmer to protect his land and his crops so that wild herds would not trample the property. They can fence in the property more cheaply, and the production of barbed wire went up dramatically in 1874.

Mary Elizabeth Lease

political activist for populist party and temperance proclaimed her movement would not pay for ridiculous charges until government pays dept for suffering

Sioux Wars

lasted from 1876-1877 between Sioux Indians and white men seeking gold; led by Sitting Bull; American Officer -Custer killed at the battle at Little Bighorn. Indians defeated by U.S.

Dawes Severalty Act 1887

Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes

Patrons of husbandry

a group organized in 1867, the leader of which was Oliver H. Kelley. It was better known as the Grange. It was a group with colorful appeal and many passwords for secrecy. The Grange was a group of farmers that worked for improvement for the farmers.

Nez Perce 1877

Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce Nation surrendered to units of the U.S. Cavalry. Before this retreat the Nez Perce fought a cunning strategic retreat toward refuge in Canada from about 2,000 Army soldiers. This surrender, after fighting 13 battles and going about 1,600 miles toward Canada, marked the last great battle between the U.S. government and an Indian nation

Comstock Lode 1859

Rich deposits of silver found in Nevada

Granger Laws 1874

A set of laws designed to address railroad discrimination against small farmers, covering issues like freight rates and railroad rebates.

Apache

Native American-Indian tribe; 1870's; group from Arizona and New Mexico led by Geronimo were difficult to control; chased into Mexico by Federal troops; they became successful farmers raising stock in Oklahoma

Long Drive

Refers to the dangerous overland transport of cattle by cowboys over a three month period. Cattle were then sold to settlers and Native Americans.

Ghost Dance

A cult that tried to call the spirits of past warriors to inspire the young braves to fight. It was crushed at the Battle of Wounded Knee after spreading to the Dakota Sioux. The Ghost Dance led to the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887. This act tried to reform Indian tribes and turn them into "white" citizens. It did little good.

Homestead Act 1862

provided free land in the west as long as the person would settle there and make improvements in five years

farmer's Alliance 1884

A Farmers' organization worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy

Battle of Wounded Knee 1890

The Sioux, convinced they had been made invincible by magic, were massacred by troops at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.

eighty-niners

Mass migraters into Oklahoma in 1889 under the Homestead act of 1862

Populists

People who hold liberal views on economic matters and conservative ones on social matters. The prefer a strong government that will reduce economic inequality, regulate businesses, and impose strincter social and criminal sanctions. Mostly made up of farmers

Jacob Coxey

Populist who led Coxey's Army in a march on Washington DC in 1894 to seek government jobs for the unemployed.

Richard Olney

the secretary of state under Cleveland. attacked Britain for trying to get some of Venezuela's land in 1895 claiming that it went against the Monroe Doctrine

Thomas Reed

"The Czar" When Republicans controlled everything, he was Speaker of the House and he ran the House like his own castle

Eugene V. Debs

Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.

William McKinley

25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist and 25th president

James B. Weaver

Former Civil War General and Granger who ran as GreenBack Labor party ticket for president in 1880 and as a populist in 1892

William Jennings Bryan

Politician who ran for president 1896, 1900 and 1908 under Democrats, was a pro-silverite and Populist leader

Marcus Hanna

Leader of the Republican Party who fought to get William McKinley the Republican nomination for president during the 1896 election.

free silver

Movement for using silver in all aspects of currency. Not adopted because all other countries used a gold standard.

sixteen to one

Ratio of silver to gold that Bryan rested his presidential platform on

Billion Dollar Congress

Thomas B. Reed dominated it—the first in history to appropriate that sum. Congress showered pensions on Civil War veterans and increased gov. purchases of silver. To keep revenues flowing in and to protect Republican industrialists from foreign competition, they also passed the McKinley Tariff Act of 1890 which boosted rates to highest peacetime level ever.

homestead strike 1892

It was one of the most violent strikes in U.S. history. It was against the Homestead Steel Works, which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company, in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. The riot was ultimately put down by Pinkerton Police and the state militia, and the violence further damaged the image of unions.

"Cross of Gold" speech 1896

An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.

Pension Act 1890

Passed by the Fifty-First congress under the direction of president Harrison; it awarded pensions to all Civil War veterans who had fought for at least 90 days and were no longer able to do manual labor. Foreshadowed the "welfare state" of the next century. Won support from the GAR and the GOP.

Jim Crow laws

black and white segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965

American Protective Association

An organization created by nativists in 1887 that campaigned for laws to restrict immigration

Sherman Silver Purchase Act 1890

increased the coinage of silver, but in amounts too small to satisfy farmers and miners

depression of 1893

caused by excessive building and overspeculation as well as a continued agricultural depression along with the free coining of silver and the collecting of debts by European banking houses, this was the worst economic downturn of the nineteenth century

Dingley Tariff 1897

raised duties to an all time high (57%). The theory was that if the rich capitalists had more money, it would trickle down to the poor and laboring classes.

McKinley Tariff 1890

raised the tax on foreign products to a peacetime high of over 48%.

Pullman strike 1894

railway workers strike for higher wages against the Pullman Company, in which President Grover Cleveland issued an injunction (a court order to stop something) to prevent the strike.

Gold Standard Act 1900

established gold as the only standard for redeeming paper money, stopping bimetallism; signed bye McKinley

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