The time of the Bourbons; beginning in 1643 until the death of Louis XVI in 1793.
"Entrenched aristocracy v.s. a rising bourgeoisie," - wanted meritocracy, schooled in the Enlightenment, used it to back up their political ideas, read Voltaire, John Locke, Rousseau, Montesquieu, and more.
Nobility v.s. Peasants: (Feudal/Agrarian Revolution) Examples include the Bread Crisis and the Storming of the Bastile
Diplomatic Resolution of 1756
After years of fighting between Austria and France, the two countries express their peace by the marriage between Marie Antoinette of Austria and Louis XVI of France, according to this document.
reasons of the bad economy in France
The American Revolution - Louis XVI sought retribution for the 7 Years' War, enough $ to feed 7 million peasants for a year - wars of Louis XIV, Versailles, Deficit Spending, no taxation of the nobles, heavy taxation on the peasants; no hard-working middle class - Huguenots - kicked out of France in the Edict of Fontainebleu in 1685.
"Let them eat cake"
The quote that Marie Antoinette had never said.
Fees collected by nobles for services on Noble land; ex. a mill tax.
Massive famine, there was violence and fear between all classes. Peasants would burn manorial records, fearful of brigands (criminals outside the law). Peasants thought the nobles would steal from them.
a great famine spread about and the peasants became desperate for food, were hysterical and paranoid because of the French army that patrolled around the country. They didn't feel safe.
The estate that the clergy made up.
The estate that the nobles made up.t
The estate that the middle class and peasants made up.
The year in which the Estates General met for the last time; was dismissed by Cardinal Richelieu during the 30 Years' War.
The time span in which the Estates General did not meet.
It was a precedent
The reason why the Estates General met again in three separate houses.
What is the Third Estate?
Abbe de Sieyes wrote it, a pamphlet that expressed the power that the third estate had - everything- since they were the majority of the country. They had the soverignty and were the largest taxpayers. Other 2 estates could be eliminated and it wouldn't matter.
nothing, something, everything.
Fill in the blanks and separate with commas: "What have we been? ________. What do we plan to be? ________. What are we? ______.
The month and year in which the Estates General met since 1614.
He was fearful of their private armies.
Why did Louis XVI side with the nobles and shut down the third estate when they demanded to meet together?
Tennis Court Oath
The Third Estate took the _______, which said the third estate will create a constitution. It was a paper victory - devolution of soverignty. The third estate stated that wherever they met, they represented the majority of the nation.
After the Tennis Court Oath, the Third Estate became the ________.
Jacques Louis David
A neoclassical painter that was the "photographer" of the French Revolution, drew the "Tennis Court Oath" and a painting of Napoleon on a horse.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citezan
In August, the National Assembly wrote this, which is similar to the Bill of Rights - limited the power of the monarch.
The Third Estate used the ideas of _____, who said that a nation had the right to rebel if their manorial rights were being abused.
Lettres de Cachet
The French king could warrant imprisonment or death in a signed letter under his seal called the ________. It was "open ended, a blank check."
The peasants stormed the ______ on July 14 1789. They feared that the nobles would take away their food during the Bread Crisis; paranoid. "We'll get them before they get us."
The Bastille was a _______.
_____ were attacked, heads were put on stakes. The warden begged to die and was killed during the storming of the Bastille.
98 _______ were martyred and displayed throughout Paris after the storming of the Bastille, which was ripped apart by hand.
Liberty, equality, and fraternity!
The slogan of the Revolution, the translation of "Liberte, Egalite, and Fraternite!"
This document outlawed the feudalism in France, the agrarian system. The National Guard was set up, under the National Assembly, which would be led by the Marquis de Lafayette.
Blue and Red, the colors of Paris, hugging white, the color of the Bourbons; the new name for the flag of France, a limited monarchy, the color that was in fashion for all revolutionaries.
the bonne rouge, worn by revolutionaries.
Olympe de Gouges
Author of "Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Citizen," which was published in 1791. The book advocated education for women, suffrage for women, and equal punishment for both man and woman.
The series of paranoia after the storming of the Bastille. Killings and violence were common because of that paranoia.
The mob of _____ stormed Versailles and wanted the king and his family to move to Paris, and the king hesitated. The crowd went wild and stormed Versailles, and they wanted to kill the Queen.
The royal family was escorted back to Paris, taken as prisoners to their new home, called the _______.
The National Assembly created a new law-making body called the _____ _____, similar to the British Parliament, a law-making body.
Under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy of 1790, the clergy became a department of state. Clergy has to be "official." Those that weren't were called the ____ clergy.
Under the French Constitution of 1791, France became a limited monarchy. The king got a "____" stamp; he could not pass laws and his ministers were responsible for their own actions.
Flight to Varennes
In the _______ of 1791, the king and his family tried to flee to Austria and join the emigres. The king was captured and returned to Paris as a prisoner.
Many saw the king as a traitor, and there was an uprising at the Tuilleries and he went to the Legislative Assembly to seek refuge. Robespierre said the king needs to be put on ____.
What will be the fate of Louis?
The First Coalition
The name of the group that governments, countries, or nations come together and join to fight against France.
The Brunswick Manifesto
A document from the Duke of Brunswick, that states that if France harms the Royal Family, Austria will level France!!
During the ____ ____, there was a fear of counterrevolutionaries: let's get them before they get us!! About 1500 people are slaughtered in jails, 1100 refractory priests were killed, committee of public safety is form, oligarchy led by Robespierre.
These people were the Parisian working class; they wore long pants because they did not want to seem aristocratic.
devours its own children
Danton said that "the revolution _____ __ ___ _______." Meaning that the original revolutionaries will be killed by the biggest leader, such as Robespierre, because they know the secrets and weaknesses of the leader. Robespierre killed his own friends, including Danton.
____ was the editor of the newspaper called "the friend of the people." He was a radical and a lunatic and always called for heads to roll.
Jacques Louis David
Marat was killed by Charlotte Cordet easily since he had an open door policy, and she stabs him while he is in his bath. _____ paints Marat in a "Christ-like" position in his painting, "The Death of Marat."
On January 21, 1793, Louis XVI was guillotined for treason. It is said "may an impure blood water our furrows," meaning kill the king so France can ____!
Louis XVIII, the son of Louis XVI, will die in prison from neglect, and _________ will be guillotined in August because of deficit spending and neglecting the people. It is even said that she had incest with her son.
Reign of Terror
Robespierre reflected on the ______ __ _____, explaining that "terror is nothing other than justice; prompt, severe, inflexible."
A revolt occurred because the people didn't like that there was no connection to the Pope between the clergy. Church lands were used and sold to created lands, through issued papers called ________.
A process that Robespierre used during the Reign of Terror; used to disarm the counterrevolution and it was to reclaim people's loyalty from the Pope. It was also used to secularize France: Deism is the word!
A new _____ was made so there would be no Sundays, Holidays, or any other religious days.
On July 26, Robespierre gives a speech illustrating new plots and conspiracies. He alienated members of the CPS and the CGS and many felt threatened by his implications. The result of this comes the _________ _________.
On July 27, Robespierre is arrested. He tried to commit suicide and fails, but he managed to shoot himself in the ___ and lost his voice: Robespierre was silenced forever.
On July 28, Robespierre is tried and ________.
______ ______ was an ethnically Italian man but nationally French since he was born in Corsica. He was a Ren. man - mind was like a chest of drawers. Came to the aid of the Revolution and was an Enlightened despot in all ways - reactionary and Machiavellian.
Napoleon rose to power based on the invasion of Egypt in 1798 and in 1799 he overthrew a weak directory and set up a 3 man consulate. This overthrow was called the coup d'etat de ________, on November 9, 1799.
Napoleon crossed the Alps into Italy. In the painting "Napoleon Crossing the Alps," Napoleon passes a rock where two names are signed, _______ and ________. (ABC order)
confidence from below, authority from above
What does Abbe de Sieyes say about Napoleon?
Napoleon is the First Consul, which is a link back to _____. (Octavian -> Princeps)
Napoleon wanted approval to be the First Consul by the Plebiscite, which is a vote by citizens, and this shows that Napoleon is a child of the __________.
The idea that people create things and then step back; people give their sov. in perpetuity.
Napoleon dresses like the Caesar and is addressed as an Emperor, which shows that he is ________.
Napoleon says he "found a crown in the gutter" - gets the opinion of the people, legits it, and declares himself the Emperor of the French, breaks the precedent of 1004 years that links back to Pope Leo III and ________.
Concordat of the Vatican
A document that the Pope agrees with; the Pope knew he would not crown Napoleon and that he would crown himself: if the Pope allows this to happen, then Napoleon will allow Catholicism back into France, reactionary.
The _______ ____ stressed: the equality of citizens before the law, religious toleration, careers open to talent - meritocracy. However, women lost rights. Codified the many laws of France and displayed them - links back to Rome, 12 tables!!
The _____ _____ includes the following areas: Cisalpine Republic, Northern Italy, Spain, Belgium, Grand Duchy of Warsaw, France, Confederation of the Rhine (west bank of the Rhine), Portugal, Helvetic Republic (Swiss.), Illyrian Provinces, Dalmatian Coast - Croatia.
Policies of Napoleon include: prince control, infrastructure, news industry, public education which is mandatory, which leads to educated people so a meritocracy can be used. These policies allow France to have ________ feelings!
Haitians respond against oppression from Napoleon to gain their independence from 1792 to 1804, and they are led by _____ ______.
America and France come up with $15,000,000 for the selling of the _____ _____. Napoleon sold it to Thomas Jefferson so the money can be used to maintain his empire and fund his army.
Peace at Pressburg
The treaty that ends the fighting between France and Austria at Ulm and Austerlitz: The former defeats the latter and Austria is deprived of land it received in the Treaty of Campo Formio.
_______ means two things that contradict, like the fact that the painting "Crossing the Alps" by Paul Delaroche makes Napoleon seem human yet godly.
______ means spiritual, heavenly, other-wordly.
At the Battle of _______ in 1805, the Royal Navy under the command admiral Horatio Nelson defeated the combinded fleets of France and Spain. Napoleon attacked Britain because he wanted the Strait of Gibraltar for himself.This battle ensures Britain the supremacy of the seas for more than 100 years.
After the defeat of the French at the Battle of Trafalgar, Napoleon will get England by the ______ _____, or so he thought.
Metternich, the prince of Austria, saw Germany and Italy as "_______ _______"
Napoleon was unable to invade England because their ____ was invincible.
In the _____ ______, Alexander I pulls out of the Continental System with Napoleon.
In the ________ _______ from 1807 to 1810, Portugal did not comply with the Continental System. France wanted Spain's support to invade Portugal, and when Spain declined, France invaded Spain!
On the Third of May 1801 by Goya, a painting of the ______ period, a man, dressed in white and in a "Christ-like" position is shown with guns pointed at him by the French, who are shown as dark, faceless figures. The painting is evocative and sublime, it makes the viewer feel emotion.
Napoleon's army arrived in Spain in 1808 and they thought they would be greeted as liberators from the Bourbon monarchy, but the French were seen as intruders to Spain. The French were therefore brutal to the Spanish, and the Spanish used ______ _____ on the French.
In 1810, Napoleon decided to invade _____ because Alexander I Romanov refused to participate in Napoleon's Continental System.
Scorched Earth, Winter
Napoleon expected a quick invasion, a decisive battle, that shouldn't have been more than three weeks. He was there for over a year because of the _____ ____ and ______. (ABC order)
To punish Russia, Napoleon brings over 500,000 troops of his Grand Army with him. While in Russia, Napoleon finds out that _____ is in a siege, and by dog sled that took 13 days, Napoleon returned to France with a remaining 100,000 soldiers.
In November 1813 Metternich communicated to Napoleon a proposition known as the "______ _______," by which Napoleon would remain French emperor and France would retain its "natural" frontier on the Rhine.
Treaty of Chaumont
Castlereagh succeeded in setting Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain to sign the _____ __ _____ on March 9, 1814.
Tallyrand said that the "legitimate" king, Louis XVIII, was after all the man who would provoke the factionalism and opposition. Louis XVIII issued a "_____ ______," seeking the support of France, called the Charter of 1804.
Congress of Vienna
From September 1 to 1814 to June 9, 1815, the _____ __ ______ took place. Its job was to undo everything that Napoleon had done: Reduce France to its old boundaries and its frontiers were pushed back post 1790 and restore as many of the old monarchies as possible tat had lost their thrones during the Napoleonic era. The Congress of Vienna also supported the resolution that there is always an alternative to conflict, which was similar to the Concert of Europe.
In 1813, Napoleon is defeated at the Battle at _____ on October 16-17, 1813.
On April 11, 1814, Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to ___ by the Treaty of Fontainebleau.
The royalists took control after Napoleon's exile and ______ is restored to the throne.
Napoleon escapes from Elba on a trade ship and returns to France and comes back for ____ ____ - the final days - in 1815. He recreates the Grand Army and the Grand Empire
Battle of Waterloo
On June 18, 1815, Napoleon was defeated again in Belgium at the ____ __ _____ by the British General, the Duke of Wellington.
Napoleon is again exiled, but this time to __ ______, located in the South Atlantic, which is where he would die in 1821.
Russia, Prussia, Austria, Britain, France
The key players at the Congress of Vienna include Alexander I of _____, King Frederick William III of _____, Prince Metternich of _______, Castlereagh of _____, and Tallyrand of ______.
balance of power
A _____ __ _____ will be established to ensure peace and stability.