a phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject.
a prepositional phrase includes a preposition, the object of a preposition, and any modifiers of that object. ex. I drove home with my best friend last night. [friend is the object of the preposition with]
a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun, tells what kind or which one. ex. I asked for a basket of bread when I ate at Olive Garden. [of bread modifies the noun basket, indicating what kind of basket it is]
a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb, tells when, where, why, how, or to what extent. ex. Kris eats quite extensively for a girl. [for a girl modifies the adverb extensively, indicating how]
verbals are formed from verbs and act as adjectives, nouns, or adverbs. the three verbals are participles, gerunds, and infinitives.
a participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective. present participles end in -ing. most past participles end in -d or -ed, though some are formed irregularly. ex. A cracked window was the focus of the picture. [cracked, the past participle of the verb crack, modifies the noun window]
a participial phrase consists of a participle and any modifiers or complements that participle has. the entire phrase is used as an adjective. ex. I sat in my bedroom and watched the rain falling to the ground. [falling modifies rain, while to the ground modifies falling to form the participial phrase]
a gerund is a verb form that ends in -ing and is used as a noun. it can be a subject, a predicate nominative, a direct object, an indirect object, or an object of a preposition.
a gerund phrase consists of a gerund and any modifiers or complements that gerund has. the entire phrase is used as a noun - as a subject, predicate nominative, direct object, indirect object, or object of a preposition. ex. My least favorite part of high school is dealing with the drama. [the phrase here is a predicate nominative identifying the subject part. The prepositional phrase with the drama modifies the gerund dealing.]
an infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. infinitives usually begin with to; however, it should not be confused with the use of to as a preposition. occasionally to may be omitted. to + verb. ex. I just want to sing! [to sing is a noun and the direct object of the verb sing]
an infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive and any modifiers or complements that infinitive has. the entire phrase can be used as a noun, and adjective, or an adverb. ex. To participate in the Olympics is a great honor. [the phrase is a noun and the subject of the verb is. The adverb phrase in the Olympics modifies the infinitive to participate]
an appositive is a noun or pronoun placed beside another noun or pronoun to identify or describe it. ex. My friend Kendra is absolutely gorgeous. [the appositive Kendra identifies the noun friend]
an appositive phrase consists of an appositive and any modifiers it has
a clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence
an independent or main clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence. ex. Bo loves puns. [Bo is the subject and loves is the verb]
a subordinate or dependent clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence. It becomes part of a complete thought only when the clause is combined with an independent clause. ex. when I came home from school yesterday [this clause does not convey a complete thought on its own]
the main verb in the verb phrase of a clause that has a direct object
the main verb in the verb phrase of a clause that does not have a direct object
an adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun. it tells what kind or which one and generall follows the word or words it modifies. an adjective clause is usually introduced by a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, which, that). they are used to relate an adjective clause to the word or word group that the clause modifies. however, sometimes the the relative pronoun is left out of a sentence when it is unnecessary. ex. My brother, who goes to Klahowya Secondary School, needs to calm down. [the adjective clause modifies the noun brother, telling which one. The relative pronoun who relates the clause to the noun brother and serves as a subject of the verb goes] * occasionally, an adjective clause is intorduced by the word where or when. These words are called relative adverbs.
an essential or restrictive clause is an adjective clause that contains information necessary to the sentence's meaning, the word that is always essential.
a nonessential or nonrestrictive clause contains information that can be omitted without affecting the sentence's basic meaning and is set off by commas, the word which is always nonessential.
an adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, and adjective, or an adverb. it tells how, when, where, why, to what extent, or under what condition. an adverb clause is introduced by a subordinating conjunction, which shows the relationship between the adverb clause and the word or words it modifies. ex. I live on the street where the banjos play. [the adverb clause modifies the verb live, telling where I live]
a noun clause is a subordinate clause that is used as a noun. it may be used as a subject, a predicate nominative, a direct object, an indirect object, or the object of a preposition. as with adjective clauses, in some sentences the intorductory word may be omitted. ex. What I really want is a new car for my graduation. [the noun clause serves as the subject of this sentence]