exam(questions)

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Match the following innate defense mechanism w/ its associated structure or body fluid (Lysozome)

tears, and saliva

Match the following innate defense mechanism w/ its associated structure or body fluid (Very acidic PH)

stomach

Match the following innate defense mechanism w/ its associated structure or body fluid (Sebum, and fatty acids)

Skin

Match the following innate defense mechanism w/ its associated structure or body fluid (Low pH, flushing,action of urine)

Urogenital tract

Match the following innate defense mechanism w/ its associated structure or body fluid (Mucociliary escalator)

Bronchial tubes

Match the following innate defense mechanism w/ its associated structure or body fluid (phagocytes)

Lower respiratory tract

Phagocytes are potent innate host defenses, Which of the following are the major phagocytic cells in the body?
(a)Thrombocytes
(b)Erythrocytes
(c)B lymphocytes
(d)Neutrophils
(e)Basophils

(d)neutrophils

Healthy skin is our number one line of defense against bacterial infection, True or False?

true

Which of the following is part of a host's specific defense mechanism?
(a)Production of a mucous layer
(b)Local Inflammation
(c)Antibody
(d)Fever
(e)The low pH of the stomach

(c)antibody

Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system?
(a)Collects excess fluid from the spaces between body cells
(b)Provides many of the nonspecific defense mechanism
(c)Transports digested fats to the cardiovascular system
(d)sequestration of iron
(e)Provides many of the specific defense mechanisms

(d)provides many of the specific defense mechanisms

Inflammation is influenced by histamine, which is released by
(a)Eosinphils
(b)Erythrocytes
(c)Platelets
(d)Basophils
(e)Leukocytes

(d)basophils

Which of the following is true of macrophages? They...
(a)can be found stationary in tissues
(b)Can be found circulating in the bloodstream
(c)Can ingest and destroy microorganisms
(d)All of the above

(e)all of the above

One of the common defense mechanisms pathogenic bacteria have to avoid phagocytosis in the pesence of:
(a)Pili
(b)A cell membrane
(c)Peptidoglycan
(d)capsule
(e)endospores formation

(d)endospore formation

The chemotactic movement of phagocytic cells is stimulated by chemicals called:
(a)Antibodies
(b)Antigens
(c)Cytokines
(d)Interferons
(e)mucins

(e)mucins

Match the following white blood cells with their respective description. (Neutrophils)

Most numerous luekoctye

Math the following white blood cells with their respective description. (Esinophils)

Released in large numbers during allergic responses

Math the following white blood cells with their respective description. (Lymphocytes)

Participate in specific defenses

Math the following white blood cells with their respective description. (Monocytes)

Agranular phagocytes

An organelle found in phagocytic cells that contain ingested microbes, digested enzymes, and small proteins called defensins is a:
(a) Lysozome
(b)Phagolysozome
(c)Phagosome
(d)Pseudopodia
(e) none of the above

Phagolysome

Large parasites, such as helminths, are most likely attacked by:
(a)Basophils
(b)Erythrocytes
(c)Platelets
(d)Neutrophils
(e)Eosinophils

(e)Eosinophils

What is a cardinal sign of inflammation?
(a)An increase in temp.
(b)Redness
(c)swelling
(d)Pain at the infected site
(e)All of the above

(e) all of the above

Cells enter an antiviral state and produce antiviral proteins(AVP) in response to the presence of:
(a)Antigen
(b)Lipopolysacharide
(c)Specific antibody
(d)Interferon
(e)Complement

(d)Interferon

A membrane attack complex(MAC) that can lyse microorganisms is produces by components of:
(a) complement
(b)Antibodies
(c)Interferon alpha
(d)interferon gamma
(e)None of these

(a)Complement

Naturally acquired active immunity would be most likely acquired through which of the follow processes.
(a) Vaccination
(b)Drinking colostrum
(c)Antivenin injection
(d)Infection with disease w/ disease-causing organism followed by recovery
(e)Natural birth

(d)Infection with disease w/ disease-causing organism follower by recovery

Which of the following convey the longest-lasting immunity to an infectious agent?
(a)naturally acquired passive immunity
(b)artificially acquired immunity
(c)Naturally acquired active immunity
(d)All of those
(e)None of these

(c)Naturally acquired active immunty

Which of the following substances will not stimulate an immune response unless they are bound to a larger molecule?
(a)Antigen
(b)hapten
(c)Antibody
(d)Virus
(e)Milligen

(b)Hapten

B and T cells are produced by stem cells that are formed in:
(a)Bone marrow
(b)The circulatory system
(c)The lymph nodes
(d)The liver
(e)The spleen

(a)Bone marrow

Be cells mature in the ________wile T cells mature in the ________

Bone marrow/ Thymus

Which of the following immune cells/molecules are most effective at destroying intracellular pathogens:
(a)Th cells
(b)Antibodies
(c)Tc Cells
(d)B cells
(e)Complement

(c) Tc Cells

Another term for antibody is?
(a)Antigen
(b)Hapten
(c)Immunoglobulin
(d)enzyme
(e)Protein

(c)Immunoglobulin

B cells that produce and release large amount of antibody are called:
(a)Memory cells
(b)Plasma cells
(c)Neutrphils
(d)Basophils
(e)Killer cells

(b)Plasma cells

B cells are activated by:
(a)Complement
(b)Interferon
(c)Antigen
(d)Antibody
(e)Memory cells

(c) Antigen

The best definition of an antigen is:
(a)A foreign molecule in the body
(b)A chemical that elicits antibody production that binds to that antibody
(c)A molecule that binds to antibody
(d)A pathogen
(e)An enzyme that activates B cells

(b)A chemical that elicits antibody production that binds to that antibody

Cell-mediated immunity is carried out by_____, while humoral immunity is mainly carried out by_______

T cells/ B cells

The ability of the immune system to recognize self antigens versus nonself antigens is an example of:
(a)Specific immunity
(b)Cell-mediated immunity
(c)Humoral immunity
(d)Tolerance
(e)Antigenic immunity

(d)Tolerance

Which of the following antibodies would most likely be found in the body secretions such as tears, milk, saliva, and mucous?
(a)IgA
(b)IgM
(c)IgE
(d)Igd
(e)IgG

(b)IgM

A patient with a ________ titer of antibodies has a greater protection against infection than a patient with a _______titer.

high/low

Math the following types of antimicrobials with their actions:(bacteriostatic)

Stop bacterial growth

Math the following types of antimicrobials with their actions:(germicidal)

Kills microbes

Math the following types of antimicrobials with their actions:(viracidal)

Inactivates viruses

Math the following types of antimicrobials with their actions:(sporicidal)

Kills bacterial endospores and fungal spores

Math the following types of antimicrobials with their actions:(Fungicidal)

Kills yeasts and molds

Math the following types of antimicrobials with their actions:(Bacteriocidal)

Kills bacteria

When all microorganisms are removed or killed on or in an item this is called:
(a)cleansing
(b)Decontamination
(c)Disinfection
(d)Sanitization
(e)sterilization

(e)sterilization

Disinfectants are typically used on _______while antiseptics are applied to______

Innate objects,Living tissue

Freezing contaminated meat would most likely kill which of the following organisms
(a)bacteria
(b)viruses
(c)worm parasites
(d)bacterial spores
(e)bacteriophages

Worm parasites

Pasteurized milk is not sterile. True or False?

true

Gamma rays and X-rays are effective in killing microorganisms because they:
(a)dislodge electrons from atoms,creating ions
(b)Damage DNA
(c)Produce powerful oxidizing agents(peroxides)
(d)All of those
(e)None of those

(d)All of those

Quaternary ammonium compounds(quats) are type of:
(a)soap
(b)Alkylating agent
(c)Detergent
(d)Phenolic Substance
(e)Basic solution

(c)Detergent

The active antimicrobial ingredients in bleach is:
(a)phenol
(b)hydrochloride
(c)hypochloride
(d)Iodine
(e)Bromide

(c)hypochlorite

Heat-sensitive materials (rubber and plastic) and bulks materials (mattresses) can be sterilized using:
(a) Dry heat
(b)Autoclave
(c)UV radiation
(d)Gaseous ethylene oxide
(e) None of these

(d)Gaseous ethylene oxide

In contrast with most heat, dry heat probably damages microbes by:
(a)Denaturing proteins
(b)denaturing nucleic acids
(c)Disrupting disulfide bonds in proteins
(d)Oxidizing molecules
(e) cross-linking DNA

(d)oxidizing molecules

The minimum time used for sterilization by autoclaving is:
(a) 5 minutes
(b) 15 minutes
(c) 45 minutes
(d) 1 hour
(e) 2 hour

(b)15 mins

Which of the following is a limitation of the autoclave
(a)Length of time
(b)Ability to inactivate viruses
(c)Ability to kill endospores
(d)Use with heat-sensitive materials
(e)Use with glassware

(d)use with heat-sensitive materials

The recommended method for testing that an autoclave has truly sterilized a load uses:
(a)Mycobacterium tuberculosis
(b)Influenza Virus
(c)Staphilococcues aureus
(d)Bacteriphages
(e)Bacillus stearothermophilus

(e)Bacillus stearothermophilus

What does a researcher have to do in order to kill all bacteria in a liquid without damaging heat-labile protein in the solution?
(a)Pass the liquid through a .5-um filter
(b)Autoclave the solution
(c)pass the liquid through a .22-um filter
(d)Boil the solution
(e)Lower the pH of the solution

(c)pass the liquid through a .22um filter

Describe the process of pasteurization

process of heating a food, usually liquid, to a specific temperature for a definite length of time, and then cooling it immediately.

Which of the following affects the elimination of bacteria from an object
(a)Number of bacteria present
(b)Temperature
(c)pH
(d)Presence of organic matter
(e)all of the above

(e) all of the above

A structural component that is found in all viruses is
A-the envelope
B-DNA
C-The capsid
D-Tail fibers
E-Spikes

C-The Capsid

A chemical component that is found in all viruses
A-protein
B-Lipid
C-DNA
D-RNA
E-Glycoproteins

A-protein

A common polyhedral capsid shape of viruses
(a)Pentagon
(b)Cube
(c)Icosahedron
(d)Pyramid
(e)Sphere

C-Icosahedron

Glycoprotein that serve to attach viruses to a specific host cell are called?
(a)Tail fibers
(b)Hooks
(c)Pili
(d)Cilia
(e)Spikes

E-Spikes

Viruses that infect bacteria are called?>
(a)satelites
(b)bacteriocins
(c)Delta hepatitis
(c)Baccteriophages
(d)bacterioviruses

(d)Bacterioviruses

The time from absorption of a bacteriophage to release of newly synthesized bacteriophage is generally
(a)1 to 5 miuntes
(b)20 to 40 mins
(c)1 to 4 hours
(d)6 to 24hrs
(e)1 to 2 days

(b)20 to 40 mins

Bacteriophage that can enter into stable, long-term relationships with their hosts are called
(a)lytic phages
(b)Defective phages
(c)Virulent phages
(d)Lazy phages
(e) temperate phages

(e)Temperate phages

A parasite that must spend at least part of its life cycle on or in a host is called a
(a) facultative parasite
(b)hyperparasite
(c)Host-specific parasite
(d)Obligate parasite
(e) pathologic parasite

(d)Obligate parasite

What is the best description for
Definitive host
intermediate host

Parasite reproduces as a sexual form in this host
Parasite reproduces as a asexual form in this host

Ectoparasites are likely to be found?
(a)within their host
(b) on the surface of their host
(c) sharing the ectoplasm of photosynthetic algea
(d)In extreme environments
(e)Do not need a host

(b)On the surface of their host

What is meant by the phrase"vector borne parasite"

One that is carried(transmitted) by a living host

Antibiotics are most likely to be produced by?
(a) plantlike protists
(b)Algae
(c)Cellular slime molds
(d)FUngi
(e)Lichens

(d)Fungi

Fungie are not classified in the Kingdom Plantae primarily because they
(a)Have unicellular and multicellular forms
(b) Are prokaryotes
(c)Are heterotrophs
(d)Need high moisture
(e)Reproduce sexually

(c)Are heterotrophs

The parasitic helminths that are most likey to be found in bile ducts, lungs, and blood are the
(a)Tapeworms
(b)roundworms
(c)Flatworms
(d)Flukes
(e)heartworms

(d)Flukes

What portion of the tapeworm is responsible for attachment
(a)coelom
(b)Neck
(c)Proglotid
(d)Scolex
(e)cuticle

(d)Scolex

The unicellular, Eukaryotic organisms with a true nucleus and organelles that are membrane-bound are classified as
(a)Arthropods
(b)Lichens
(c)Flukes
(d)Protista
(e)Zygomycetes

(d)Protista

Bacteriophage-mediated transfer of genetic material between bacteria is called
(a) Transformation
(b))Transfection
(c)conjugation
(d)Transduction
(e)Cloning

(e)Cloning

Generally, plasmids carry which type of genetic material?
(a)nonessential genes
(b) essential genes
(c) useless genes
(d) RNA

(a)Nonessential genes

A bacterium can acquire the ability to make a new enzyme or toxin naturally by
(a)Mutation
(b)Transformation
(c)Conjugation
(d)All of the above
(e)Only (b) and (c)

(e) only (b) and (c)

What term refers to a genetic segment containing genes encoding for proteins involved in a specific biochemical reaction?
(a)Transfer RNA
(b)Anticodon
(c)Codon
(d)Operon
(e)Genotype

(d)Operon

How many chromosomes are found in a typical bacterial cell
(a)2
(b)1
(c)4
(d)23
(e)16

(b)1

A type of symbiotic relationship that benefits both members of the association is?
(a)commensalism
(b)mutualism
(c)parasitism
(d)infection
(e)infestation

(b)mutualism

The process by which microbes disturb the normal health and function of the host is?
(a)mutualism
(b)disease
(c)infection
(d)infestation
(e)contamination

(d)infestation

Endotoxin is associated with_______ bacteria, while exotoxins can be made by____bacteria

Gram negative/ gram negative and positive

The best descriptive term for resident microflora is
(a)Parasites
(b)pathogens
(c)Infestations
(d)commensals
(e)mutualists

d/e commensals, mutualists

Resident flora are commonly found in the?
(a)lungs
(b)intestine
(c)Stomach
(d)nervous system
(e)Blood

(b)intestine

The specific action of hemolysis is to
(a)cause leukocytes
(b)damage white blood cells
(c)cause fever
(d)Lyse red blood cells
(e)Damage nerves

(d)Lyse red blood cells

The ability to produce hemolysin benefits the microorganism by?
(a)Causing disease
(b)Releasing iron to be used for growth
(c)releasing hemoglobin
(d)Destroying host defenses
(e)Breaking down host tissue

(b)Releasing iron to be used for growth

An example of an acute disease is
(a)Chicken pox
(b)tuberculosis
(c)Gum disease
(d)Herpes
(e)Hepatitis C

(a) Chicken pix

Which of the following would be a septicemia
(a)Bacteremia
(b)Focal infection
(c)Local infection
(d)Viremia
(e)Systemic infection

(e)Systemic infection

The presence of a few, non multiplying, bacteria in the blood is termed
(a)Viremia
(b)Septicemia
(c)bacteremia
(d)Toxemia
(e)Secondary infection

(c)bacteremia

Which of the follow is mis-matched
(a)decline phase-Death occurs
(b)Fulminating-Sudden and severe onset of disease
(c)Prodromal phase-Nonspecific symptoms present
(d)Pyrogen-Fever causing agent
(e)Invasive phase- Typical signs and symptoms of disease are present

(a) Decline phase-Death occurs

A positive antibody test for HIV would be a____ of disease
(a)Symptom
(b)syndrome
(c)Sign
(d)Virulence
(e)sequela

(c)sign

Which of the following is not a condontion of kochs disease
(a)Isolate the causative agent of a disease
(b)Cultivate the microbe in the lab
(c)Inoculate a test animal to observe the disease
(d)Grow organism in pure culture
(e)Produce a vaccine

(e)Produce a vaccine

A laboratory bench with bacteria spilled on it could be correctly referred to as what
(a)Infected
(b)contaminated
(c)Infested
(d)diseased
(e)inflamed

(b)Contaminated

_______is the capacity to produce disease
(a)Pathogenecity
(b)Virulence
(c)Attenuation
(d)Passage
(e)Symbiosis

(a)pathogenecity

________are soluble substances secreted from bacteria into host tissues, whereas______are part of the bacterial cell wall and enter host tissues during division or after cell death
(a)exotoxins/endotoxins
(b)Endotoxins/Exotoxins
(c)lipopolysaccharides/proteins
(d)pollysaccharides/porins
(e)Toxoids/metatoxins

(a)exotoxins/endotoxins

Botulinum toxin is an example of a(n)
(a)endotoxin
(b)lipopolysaccharide
(c)carbohydrate
(d)Hemolysin
(e)Exotoxin

(e)exotoxin

Incidence of disease can be defined as
(a)the total number of people infected within the population at any time
(b)The number of new cases plus the total number of cases per year
(c)the number of people infected with a disease divided by the total population
(d)The number of new cases contracted within a set population during a specific period of time
(e)The number of people in a given population that show no symptoms of disease

(d)The number of new cases contracted within a set population during a specific period of time

The prevalence of disease can be defined as
(a)The total number of people infected within the population at any time
(b)The number of new cases contracted within a set population during a specific period of time
(c)The number of new cases plus the total number of cases per year
(d)The number of people infected with a disease divided by the total population
(e)The number of people in a given population that show no symptoms of disease

(a)The total number of people infected within the population at any time

An endemic infectious agent is
(a)present sporadically in the population
(b)eradicated from the population
(c)Always life-threatening
(d)present continually in population
(e)always harmless

(d)present continually in population

A(n)_____arises when a disease suddenly has a higher-than-normal incidence in a population
(a)Endemic
(b)epidemic
(c)pandemic
(d)mortality
(e)pathogen

(b)epidemic

A(n)_____arises when an epidemic spreads worldwide
(a)pathogen
(b)nosocomial infection
(c)common-source outbreak
(d)endemic
(e)pandemic

(e)pandemic

Which of the following epidemiological studies focuses on establishing cause and effect relationships in the occurrences of disease within a population
(a)Descriptive
(b)analytical
(c)experimental
(d)Index
(e)Epidemic

(b)analytical

Because most pathogens cannot survive for extended periods of time outside of the body they must persist within______in order to maintain their ability to infect humans
(a)macrophages
(b)viruses
(c)Reservoirs of infection
(d)endospores
(e)capsules

(c)Reservoirs of infectoin

Salmonella typhi has the ability to persist within the gall-bladder of humans while causing no clinical symptoms. the infected individual is still contagious, however and would be considered a(n)
(a)Pathogen
(b)nuisance
(c)endemic
(d)carrier
(e)bacteriophage

(d)carrier

Vertical transmission refers to transmission of a pathogen from a(n)
(a)Lower life forms to higher life forms
(b)Younger species to older species
(c)Parent to offspring before or during birth
(d)Younger child to an older child
(e)parent to a child

(c)Parent to offspring before or during birth

Disease that are transmitted to humans from animals are called
(a)zoonoses
(b)rabies
(c)vectors
(d)carriers
(e)harmless

(a)Zoonoses

Which of the following is not a common portal of entry for microogranisms
(a)skin
(b)digestive tract
(c)urogenital tract
(d)respiratory tract
(e)brain

(e)brain

Nonliving objects that can harbor and aid in transmission of infectious agents are called
(a)fomites
(b)vectors
(c)Reservoirs of infection
(d)Harbors
(e)Fingers

(a)Fomites

Which of the following would not be considered a vehicle of transmission for an infective agent
(a)water
(b)tick
(c)air
(d)food
(e)blood

(b)tick

Which of the following would not be considered a disease vector
(a)Ticks
(b)fleas
(c)handkerchief
(d)Lice
(e)Mosquitos

(c)Handkerchiek

Disease that are potentially harmful to the public's health and must be reported by physicians are called
(a)Notifiable diseases
(b)Nosocomial diseases
(c)Recordable diseases
(d)HIV
(e)Epidemics

(a)Notifiable diseases

Which of the following would not be considered a compromised host
(a)AIDS patient
(b)Healthy individual
(c)Chemotherapy patient
(d)Transplant patient
(e)Burn patient

(b)Healthy individual

All of the following can help prevent nosocomial infections except
(a)Maintaining sanitary conditions
(b)Use of gloves
(c)Patients remaining in bed
(d)hand washing
(e)judicious use of antibiotics
(c)patients remaining in bed

(c)patients remaining in bed

The extensive use of antibiotics as well as gene transfer has led to more virulent, antibiotic resistant strains of all of the following organisms except
(a)Steptococcus pneumoniae
(b)Staphylococcus aureus
(c)Enterococci
(d)Influenza
(c)Escherichia coli

(d) influenza

Universal Precautions apply to all of the following bodily fluids except
(a)tears
(b)blood
(c)semen
(d)Cerebrospinal fluid
(e)amniotic fluid

(a)tears

Zoonoses

Naturally occurring animal disease that may be transmitted to humans

Fomite

Inanimate object contaminated with pathogen

Droplet nuclei

Dried mucus that contains potential pathogens

Less than 1% of organisms are harmful and cause disease. true or false

true

Life on earth would be much better of all microbes were eradicated. true or false

false

List three reasons why microorganisms are uself for research

(1)Microbes are simple
(2)Large numbers of bacteria can be used making the results of experiments more statistically significant
(3)microbes grow quickly and can be used easily for genetic experiments

The study of microbiology is important int he following?
(a)Pesticide production
(b)agriculture
(c)pollution remediation
(d)Disease prevention
(e)all of these

(c)Pollution remediation

Mycologists are microbiologists that study____ while phycologists study____

fungi/algae

The ancient jewish communities had a lower incidence of the bubonic plague due to?
(a) Availability of potent antibiotics
(b) Consumption of bacteriostatic remedies
(c)Sanitary living conditions
(d)Application of Koch's postulates to infected persons

(c)sanitary living conditions

The event that triggered the development and establishment of microbiology as a science is the?
(a)Spontaneous generation
(b)Use of disinfectants
(c)vaccinations
(d)Germ theory of disease
(e)Development of the microscope

(e)Development of the microscope

Which of the following pioneers of microbiology is credited with the discovery of microorganisms using high-quality magnifying lenses (early microscopes)
(a)Hooke
(b)Leeuwenhoek
(c)Semmelweis
(d)Koch
(e)pasteur

(b)Leeuwenhoek

Which scientist first disproved spontaneous generation by showing that maggots only appear on decaying meat that has been exposed to flies
(a)lister
(b)pasteur
(c)hooke
(d)Redi
(e)koch

(d)Redi

The biggest obstacle in the acceptance and development of science of microbiology was
(a)Lack of effective vaccines
(b)lack of sterile containers
(c)Theory of spontaneous generation
(d)Absence of debilitating disease before the seventeenth century
(e)Use of aseptic technique

(c)Theory of spontaneous generation

The germ theory of disease states that
(a) Microorganisms that invade other organisms can cause disease in those organisms
(b)microorganisms can spontaneously arise in debilitated hosts
(c)Microorganisms do not cause infectious diseases
(d)Not all microorganisms are harmful
(e)Malaria is caused by bad air

(a)Microorganisms that invade other organisms can cause disease in those organisms

The progression of microbiology was tremendously aided by koch's use of solidifying agents in the synthesis of microbiological media. True or false

True

Using binomial nomenclature, the first name designates the genus while the second name designates the
(a)specific epithet
(b)order
(c)family
(d)kingdom
(e)phylum

Specific epithet

If typed, the genus and species name should be italicized. If written, they should be____
(a)highlighted
(B)Written in all capital letters
(c)Written on bold ink
(d)Underlined
(e)Written in blue ink

Underlined

Members of species can sometimes be subdivided into subgroups called
(a)orders
(b)Genera
(c)Strains
(d)families
(e)kingdoms

Strains

In the name Escherchia coli, what is the species name
(a)Escherchia
(b)coli
(c)Escherchai coli
(d) none of the above

(c)Escherchia coli

Generally, bacterial cells divide by a process called
(a)gastration
(b)meiosis
(c)mitosis
(d)Binary fission
(e)Sporulation

(d) Binary fission

Microbial growth is typically measured by increase in cell size
True or False

False

In what phase of a typical bacterial growth curve does the cell decay rate exceed the cell multiplication rate
(a)Lag phase
(b)Log phase
(c)Stationary phase
(d)Idle phase
(e)Decline phase

(e)Decline Phase

Which of the following is the best definition of generation time?
(a)The length of time it takes for log phase to occur
(b)The length of time it takes a population of cells to double
(c)The minimum length of time it takes a cell to divide
(d)The length of time a culture stays in stationary phase
(e)The length of time it takes log phase to occur

(b)The length of time it takes a population of cells to double

if a bacterial cell that has a generation time of 30 minutes is places in a suitable sterile nutrient broth at time 0, then after 3 hours of incubation, which of the following cell numbers would you expect to count in the broth
(a)256
(b)128
(c)64
(d) 16
(e)96

(c)64

Foods containing high concentrations of salt or sugar do not usually require refrigeration to prevent their spoilage
True or False

True

Some bacteria have complex nutritional requirements because they
(a)are composed of large number of different types of molecules
(b)Can make a great many of molecules found in the cell from simple precursors
(c)Have man different enzymes and therfore can make many molecules
(d)contain unique molecules not normally found in bacterial cells
(e)Lack many enzymes and must therefore be provided with many of the molecules they need for growth

(e)Lack many enzymes and must therefore be provided with many of the molecules they need for growth

Bacteria that customarily grow in the bottom layers of deep-water bodies are usually
(a)Facultative anaerobes
(b)Obligate anaerobes
(c)Microaerophiles
(d)Obligate anaerobes
(e)Capnophiles

(b)Obligate anaerobes

Aerotolerant anaerobe

grows with or without oxygen

Capnophile

likes carbon dioxide

Facultative anaerobe

grows with or without oxygen

The formation of endospores by a bacterium is a means of reproduction
True or False

False

which of the following bacterial groups would you expect to be MOST likely associated with human infections
(a)Thermophiles
(b)Lactophiles
(c)Psychrophiles
(d)Pedophiles
(e)mesophiles

(e)Mesophiles

Photoautotrophs=require which of the following to sustain their growth

Light and carbon dioxide

Chemoheterotrophs are a large group of organisms that?

Include most pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and protozoa

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